A working mother of two is asking for help to bring smiles to her children’s faces this holiday season.

“This year we had a lot of changes for the family,” she writes. “But I now have a job that will allow me to raise my kids.”

While things are getting better, challenges are still present.

“Finding a place to live that’s big enough for all of us has been tough,” she writes. “So finances are really a challenge, even for food.”

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She writes of her youngest son, a smiling 6-year-old who is in kindergarten and already knows how to read. He enjoys school, but suffers from social anxiety and is scheduled for an autism evaluation.

With costs piling up, this mother is asking for help to make her children’s holiday brighter.

“As every mom, I want the best for my children and I hope to bring a big smile to my little angels this year,” she says in her letter.


BostonNorth.TV creates local video content for Boston and the North Shore area. We love “local stories with national interest.” We target the Web and local TV  penetrating , several markets. If you have a product, service, or company that is looking to “reach media markets ” with message development, packaging and outreach BostonNorth can assist.  A separate division focusses on finding and developing talent thru proper Management, Speech Critique and  improving presentational skills.
1. TV Web Media Production – Studio and “on location” digital film and TV production. Sponsor your business story or you can sponsor stories about the local community with your underwriting. We do short and long format production.
Currently we are looking for general underwriters for regular shows featuring the best of the North Shore ! This is a great way to support your community while reminding people about your business.
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Lou Markakis / Producer / Host / North Shore 100
Lou brings a wealth of experience in communications, politics, and the media. Selected as Emerson Colleges  Harry Truman Scholarship nominee.   Lou has spent the last twenty years showcasing talent, interviewing celebrities, and producing quality programming.  In 2007 Lou created and launched North Shore 100 a program designed to bring viewers the 100 most interesting personalities, families, and events that are helping shape our lives
Ken Kinna / Producer / Director / Editor / Photographer
Ken has worked in film and TV in Boston for about 10 years working mainly as an independent filmmaker, producer,  director, editor, camera man, film festival creator and photographer.  He has been included in a number of film festivals, won a few TV Telly awards, and been recognized by local originations for his supportive work. He is currently working on an international documentary and with a local film production. He has experience with local TV stations including BNN, Brookline, and all stations of the North of Boston area. He was the Executive Director at LynnCAM TV station, Lynn MA, from 2006 to 2010.  He graduated from RIT in Imaging Science. Currently Ken runs his own media production company in the South End of Boston, B-Roll Films, Inc.
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Young in years but well versed in productions Jordan brings a unique style and personality to the set,studio,or on location. His charming and re-assuring persona helps guests feel right at home. Coupled with a knack for “getting the right shot” he has a great work ethic and a seriousness of purpose that exudes confidence to successfully complete whatever mission is assigned. Whether covering a state or national convention to “live on air assignments” no task is too much for the young aspiring team-player. Along with his production experience Jordan is an integral part of the Executive Protection team within the “Production with Protection” division.
Angela Christoforos  / Suffolk University / Channel 7
Angela C a 21-year-old aspiring TV personality and student of Suffolk University when she joined our team. She has interned in the Newsroom at NECN, in the Special Projects Unit at WHDH Channel 7, and currently works as a Production Assistant at WHDH Channel 7. In addition, Angela also writes articles for the Suffolk Journal, Dirty Water News, and her own blog.
Demetrios Kritikos  / Production Assissant / Camera / Distribution
Demi aka Jimmy has been actively involved with television and the arts for more than 10 years. An avid sponsor,volunteer,and collaborator Dimi has evolved from cameraman, audio technician, studio production assistant,and other paid and volunteer assignments to Associate Producer. His “team-player approach” has earned him accolades from his peers,and an on-going request for his presence with productions. Thoroughly versed in the legality and production of local access television Dimi brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to North Shore 100 and’s team.


LYNN — The city council, making good on their promise to grill Mayor Judith Flanagan Kennedy on the city’s budget woes next week, has submitted a list of questions to the corner office.

The mayor is expected to appear before the 11-member panel on Tuesday night to answer queries about how the city got into a financial crisis; whether they should be building two new schools in the face of such money troubles; how the city will comply with school spending and whether the mayor plans layoffs or tax hikes to balance the budget.

The city charter gives councilors the authority to summon the mayor to the city council to answer written questions prepared in advance.

Jamie Cerulli, the mayor’s chief of staff, said Kennedy was working on the questions and declined to be interviewed.

Councilor-at-Large Brian LaPierre said the public hearing will be quite a session.

“We are encouraged that the mayor has accepted our invitation to take part in a budgetary discussion with us,” he said. “We are hopeful that we can come away from that conversation with answers and her plan to make sure that we balance this budget someway, somehow.”

One of the frustrations has been that the council has been unable to identify the exact amount of the deficit, he said.

“We really don’t know the number yet,” he said. “It’s ranged from $300,000 to $2.5 million to $7.5 million.”

The mayor too has said the figure has been a moving target.

One of the questions, posed by Ward 3 Councilor Darren Cyr, asks the mayor to provide a complete list of the shortfalls to the 2017 budget.

Cyr, who has the votes to be the next city council president, according to City Hall sources, did not return a call seeking comment.

At the last council meeting, several councilors questioned Chief Financial Officer Peter Caron about the state of Lynn’s finances. At the time, he said while the mayor has recently rejected a Proposition 2 ½ override to make up for the shortfall, he’s not so sure that’s the right decision.

The city’s finances came into focus last month when the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education told the mayor that the city’s contribution to school funding was short by $7.5 million and the state threatened to withhold its $11 million November payment in school funds until City Hall came up with more school spending.

Since then, the school funding deficit has been reduced to $2.5 million and the state money was released to the city.

“After numerous conversations with the school department and the city, we have allowed the November payment to go through,” said John J. Sullivan, the department’s associate commissioner. “We continue to work with the schools & city to resolve the issue.”

The budget deficit list includes how to pay for a wage hike for the Lynn Police Department over four years that will cost more than $3 million and the city’s prospective share for the cost of building two new middle schools of $68.5 million.

In addition, the Lynn International Association of Firefighters Local 739 is in arbitration discussions on a wage hike.

Peter Capano, the Ward 6 city councilor, who along with others councilors raised the question of a hiring freeze.

“The purpose of our questions is to come up with some clarity on the city’s financial situation,”  he said. “That’s what I’m hoping to get.  We have important decisions to make.”


Bundle up for politics in the dead of winter.

Dates for elections to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Republican state Rep. Leah Cole have been set with Feb. 2 as a special state primary and March 1 for the final special election.

The dates were set by the office of Speaker of the House Robert DeLeo and Secretary of State William Galvin. The primary is designed to winnow down each party’s candidates to a single person.
The March 1 final will be held on the same date as the state’s presidential primary, which should, among other things, save the city some money.

The presidential election could also impact the state representative race with a larger than average turnout.

At present, two Peabody Republicans have announced their intention to compete in a city GOP primary. Stephanie Close Peach, 24, was Cole’s legislative aide, while Jaclyn Corriveau, 25, just recently joined the party and is the campaign manager for City Councilor Anne Manning-Martin.

On the Democrat side, only City Councilor Jim Moutsoulas has declared his intention to run, although others, including colleague and former state Rep. Tom Walsh, have said they are considering entering the race.

The winter elections somewhat mirror the situation that first sent Cole, a political novice, to Beacon Hill in 2013. In that case, as well, it was a special election precipitated by the death of Rep. Joyce Spiliotis.

With a low turnout, Cole won the April 2013 final, garnering fewer than 2,000 votes. Cole had the luxury, however, of competing against a Democrat and an independent who had previously been a Democrat.

Much of the post-election analysis revolved around the belief that Beverley Griffin Dunne and Dave Gravel split the Democrat vote, thereby handing Cole a narrow victory. She did go on to handily win re-election the following year, however, in a two-person race versus Dunne, who had defeated Moutsoulas in the primary.

This election comes relatively soon. “And in a short period of time,” notes former Mayor Mike Bonfanti.

“It’s the better known candidate and the one that has the most money that has an edge. … The best known and the one who hustles the most,” he said. The latter qualification, he considers, is the “Peter Torigian principle,” citing the former, longtime mayor famous for his nonstop, door-to-door campaigns.

Bonfanti also applauds the decision to schedule the election the same day as the presidential primary. He estimates the savings to Peabody at around $25,000.

For his part, Moutsoulas is bullish on his chances regardless of who may later enter the Democratic primary. “I made my official announcement on Monday,” he said. Renting a private room at Kelly Square Pub, he was pleasantly surprised, he says, when 128 people showed up. He’s raised $3,500. “My signs are up and going. They’re all over the place.”

“It’s going really well,” says Corriveau of her effort. “People are so enthusiastic. And I’m knocking on doors every day.” While not able to cite an exact figure, she adds that money is “not going to be an issue.” She is the only candidate to have pulled papers thus far, according to Brian McNiff, spokesman for the Secretary of State’s office.

Peach did not return a phone call for comment by this paper’s deadline on Thursday.

Those interested in running for the 12th Essex District seat, which represents Ward 1 to 4 and two precincts in Ward 5, have until 5 p.m. on Dec. 22 to submit their nomination papers with 150 signatures that can be certified.

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Hillary Clinton didn’t just lose New Hampshire – she got clobbered, losing to rival Bernie Sanders across virtually every demographic.

Despite the campaign’s attempt to downplay the defeat as “long anticipated,” the astonishing turnout for Sanders now raises serious questions about the former secretary of state’s appeal going into the next round of contests – not just South Carolina, but Nevada and the many delegate-heavy states that vote in March.

Republicans were all too eager to point out that the Democrats’ longtime front-runner has a problem on her hands.

“The word momentum is very important, and certainly, there’s not a lot of momentum there,” Donald Trump, the Republican winner Tuesday night, told Fox News.

Whether Clinton is facing a 2008-level crisis remains to be seen. Democratic strategist Joe Trippi said the “test” for Sanders will be whether he can expand his support to black and Latino voters, or if New Hampshire was his “high water mark.”

The Clinton campaign minces no words in suggesting that once states with a bigger minority population vote, Clinton will recover.

“The nomination will very likely be won in March, not February, and we believe that Hillary Clinton is well positioned to build a strong – potentially insurmountable – delegate lead next month,” campaign manager Robby Mook said in a memo Tuesday night, noting the electorates in the first two contests are largely rural/suburban and white.

But Clinton, who won New Hampshire in 2008, still lost across virtually every voting group Tuesday including women, exit polls show.

The exit polling showed Sanders won among women, 55-44 percent; among moderates, 58-39 percent; and among voters under 50 by a huge margin.

Sanders won across voters of every education level and every income level – except for those making over $200,000, among whom Clinton had the edge.

The major demo won by Clinton Tuesday night was the over-65 bloc, which backed her 55-44 percent.

Overall, Sanders won the state, 60-38 percent.

Clinton still leads heavily in the polls in critical states like South Carolina and Florida, and it’s unclear whether Sanders will be able to transfer his momentum from the Northeast – his home turf – to the South.

While non-Hispanic white residents make up more than 91 percent of the New Hampshire population, Census figures show they make up just 62 percent of the overall U.S. population – meaning minority voters will be a bigger factor going forward.

In New Hampshire, though, exit polls show Clinton only won the state’s small non-white demographic by a single percentage point.

The exit polling data in the Granite State still holds troubling signs for the campaign. She lost big among voters looking for a candidate who is honest and trustworthy – though won among voters whose priority in a candidate is experience. It’s a factor Clinton is likely to hit hard in the days ahead, as she squares her foreign policy record at the State Department against Sanders’ – whose main foreign policy resume item was his vote against the Iraq war, which he mentioned again at his victory rally Tuesday night.

“Tonight we serve notice to the political and economic establishment of this country,” Sanders declared.

Meanwhile, Clinton’s loss revives speculation about a possible campaign shake-up.

The Clinton campaign had denied such reports before the New Hampshire vote.

But while Clinton also told MSNBC on Monday she has “no idea what they’re talking about or who they are talking to” regarding the Politico piece, she did acknowledge her campaign is “going to take stock.” Reports indicate the campaign may be looking more to add staff — rather than fire people.

The Republicans, meanwhile, charge into South Carolina and Nevada with the race remaining tight and unpredictable. Trump scored a decisive win over the rest of the Republican field, recovering after his second-place finish last week in Iowa to Texas Sen. Ted Cruz.

But Ohio Gov. John Kasich, among the worst performers in Iowa, scored second in New Hampshire. And the race for third was tight, potentially giving every candidate in the top five a reason to keep running.

Cruz was ultimately declared the third-place finisher by Wednesday, followed by former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and Florida Sen. Marco Rubio.

All three are indeed vowing to keep charging ahead. Bush told CBS News on Wednesday that the field will “whittle down” and he is a “patient person.”

Cruz potentially heads to more friendly territory in South Carolina, looking to build on his Iowa win which was aided by the strength of the evangelical vote. And Rubio, who stumbled in a rocky debate performance Saturday, vowed to supporters Tuesday that he’ll keep fighting and a performance like that “will never happen again

NORTH CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA George W. Bush returned to the campaign trail on Monday for the first time since he left the White House, mounting a defense of his legacy and his brother Jeb’s campaign after both were targeted by Donald Trump during the South Carolina Republican debate last weekend.

The former President issued a series of thinly-veiled attacks on Trump and touted his brother as a “steady hand” in a time of emerging national security threats.

Donald Trump clears up his Bush-9/11 debate remarks
George Bush featured in super PAC ad backing Jeb Bush
Donald Trump, Jeb Bush spar over Bush family legacy
“I understand that Americans are angry and frustrated but we do not need someone in the Oval Office who mirrors and inflames our frustration,” George W. Bush told a crowd of 3,000 gathered in North Charleston. “We need someone who can fix the problems that cause our anger and frusturation, and that’s Jeb Bush.”

Poll: Who won the CBS News Republican debate?
George W. Bush never mentioned the Republican frontrunner’s name, but the contrast he drew between “his big little brother” and Trump was obvious as he defined “real strength” coming from “integrity and character.”

“Strength is not empty rhetoric, it is not bluster,” George W. Bush said, flanked on stage by former First Lady Laura Bush and South Carolina Sen. Lindsey Graham, who has endorsed Jeb’s campaign. “And in my experience, the strongest person usually isn’t the loudest one in the room.
GOP rivals get personal in fiery S.C. debate
Jeb Bush spoke directly after his brother, ditching his signature eyeglasses and delivering one of the more impassioned speeches of his campaign — embracing his brother’s record in the same words he used during the GOP debate Saturday.

“While Donald Trump was building a reality TV show, my brother was building a security apparatus to keep us safe and I’m proud of what he did,” he said.

Bush called it “weird” for Trump to discuss “impeaching a Republican two-term president who is extraordinarily popular for good reason among Republicans” on the debate stage.

“Some of the dialogue back and forth made me wonder – if closed my eyes, I thought it was Michael Moore on the stage,” Jeb joked.

But Bush said the campaign was bigger than Trump.

“I can beat Hillary Clinton. I can promise you that,” he told a roaring crowd, which appeared as equally enamored with him as they were with his brother. “The only way we win is to do what Republicans, when they win, always do. Campaign like George W. did. Campaign like Ronald Reagan did.”

The younger Bush has been reluctant for most of the race to publicly draw on his brother’s support, but he finally decided to put his brother to work in South Carolina, with its heavy population of veterans and multiple military bases.

It remains to be seen whether this gambit will pay off. While it’s true the former president is personally popular in the state and won a competitive primary in South Carolina, that was sixteen years ago.

The crowd here, though, only wished that he had come out onto the trail sooner.

“Bringing in his brother would have brought more spotlight to him than he got,” Aaron Holley, an undecided Republican voter from Charleston, told CBS News. “I think bringing in George was a good idea. And I think he should have done it earlier.”

George W. Bush privately met with South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley prior to his appearance in Columbia, South Carolina. He praised the nation’s first Indian-American woman to become Governor. Haley’s endorsement is highly coveted — especially by the campaigns of Bush and Marco Rubio.

“Thank goodness our country welcomed her parents from India when they immigrated here in 1969,” George W. Bush said of Haley.

Donald Trump is now leading Saturday’s South Carolina Republican primary by 5 points – down from his 16-point lead in the state a month ago, according to results from a new NBC News/Wall Street Journal/Marist poll.

Trump gets support from 28 percent of likely Republican primary voters in the state, while Ted Cruz gets 23 percent. They’re followed by Marco Rubio at 15 percent, Jeb Bush at 13 percent and John Kasich and Ben Carson at 9 percent each.

Feb 23: Nevada Republican Caucus
Image: Donald Trump
Donald Trump
In the United States, Super Tuesday, in general, refers to the Tuesday in February or March of a presidential election year when the greatest number of states holdprimary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which each party’s presidential candidates are officially nominated. The phrase “Super Tuesday”[1]has been used to refer to presidential primary elections since at least 1976.[2] More delegates can be won on Super Tuesday than on any other single day of the primary calendar; accordingly, candidates seeking the presidency traditionally must do well on this day to secure their party’s nomination. In 2008, Super Tuesday was February 5; 24 states held primaries or caucuses on this date, with 52% of all pledged Democratic Party delegates and 49% of the total Republican Partydelegates at stake.[3] The 2016 Super Tuesday will be held on March 1.

Since Super Tuesday primaries are typically held in a large number of states from geographically and socially diverse regions of the country, Super Tuesday typically represents a presidential candidate’s first test of national electability. Convincing wins in Super Tuesday primaries have usually propelled candidates to their party’s nomination. The particular states holding primaries on Super Tuesday have varied from year to year.

The 1984 primary season had three “Super Tuesdays”.[4] Decided on “Super Tuesday III” were delegates from five states: South Dakota, New Mexico, West Virginia,California and New Jersey.[5] The proportional nature of delegate selection meant that Walter Mondale was likely to obtain enough delegates on that day to secure the support of a majority of delegates and hence the nomination, no matter who actually “won” the states contested. However, Gary Hart maintained that unpledgedsuperdelegates that had previously claimed support for Mondale would shift to his side if he swept the Super Tuesday III primary.[6] Once again, Hart committed afaux pas, insulting New Jersey shortly before the primary day. Campaigning in California, he remarked that while the “bad news” was that he and his wife Lee had to campaign separately, “[t]he good news for her is that she campaigns in California while I campaign in New Jersey.” Compounding the problem, when his wife interjected that she “got to hold a koala bear”, Hart replied that “I won’t tell you what I got to hold: samples from a toxic waste dump.”[6] While Hart won California, he lost New Jersey after leading in polls by as much as 15 points. Mondale secured the majority of delegates from the primaries, leading the way for him to take the Democratic nomination.[4] (The 1984 Republican Party primaries were uncontested as incumbent President Ronald Reagan was the assured nominee).[citation needed]

The phrase “Super Tuesday” was next used to describe the primary elections that took place on March 8, 1988, in the Southern states of Texas, Florida, Tennessee,Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Kentucky, Alabama, and Georgia leading up to the 1988 November election. In the 1988 Democratic Party primaries, Southern Democrats came up with the idea of a regional primary in an effort to nominate a moderate candidate who would more closely represent their interests. (Their plan ultimately did not succeed as Dick Gephardt, Jesse Jackson, Al Gore, and Michael Dukakis split the Super Tuesday primaries, and Dukakis was subsequently nominated.) Meanwhile, George H.W. Bush secured most of the delegates in the 1988 Republican Party primaries. From 1996 to 2004, most of these Southern primaries were held the week after Super Tuesday, dubbed “Southern Tuesday” by news commentators.[citation needed]

In 1992, Super Tuesday was on March 10. After losing earlier primaries, Democrat Bill Clinton emerged as a candidate “back from the dead” when he convincingly won a number of Southern primaries on Super Tuesday. Clinton ultimately went on to win the Democratic nomination and the presidency, defeating incumbent H.W. Bush, who was largely uncontested in the Republican primaries.[citation needed]

In 1996, Super Tuesday was on March 12. Bob Dole’s Super Tuesday sweep sealed his bid for the Republican nomination. Clinton, as the incumbent president, was unopposed in the Democratic primaries.[citation needed]

In 2000, Super Tuesday was on March 7. Sixteen states held primaries on Super Tuesday, the largest presidential primary election day in U.S. history up to that point. In 2000, approximately 81% of Democratic delegates and 18% of Republican delegates needed to secure nomination were up for grabs on Super Tuesday. That year, Democrat Al Gore and Republican George W. Bush cemented their nomination bids with Super Tuesday victories, and both went on to win their parties’ nominations.[citation needed]

Seven states held caucuses or primary elections on Mini-Tuesday in 2004. Bluedenotes Democratic-only contests (4) andPurple represents states that held elections for both parties (3).
Main article: Mini-Tuesday
In 2004, several states moved their presidential contests up to February 3, 2004 in order to increase the relative importance of their election results. Ultimately, five states held primaries and two held caucuses on this date, a date eventually christened Mini-Tuesday or, alternatively, Super Tuesday I by pundits, with the traditional March Super Tuesday date, March 2, christened Super Tuesday II, or just simply “Super Tuesday.”

Twenty-four states held caucuses or primary electionson Super Tuesday, 2008. Blue denotes Democratic-only contests (3), Red illustrates Republican-only contests (2), and Purple represents states holding elections for both parties (19). Notes: American Samoa (not shown) is Democratic only.
Main articles: Super Tuesday, 2008 and Super Tuesday II, 2008
To increase importance of their votes, many states moved up their primaries to February 5, 2008. This new, earlier cohort of primaries and caucuses has thus come to be referred to as “Super Tuesday.” (By way of denoting its political magnitude, some pundits have variously dubbed it “Giga Tuesday,” “Mega Giga Tuesday,” “Tsunami Tuesday” or even “Super Duper Tuesday.”[7] “Super Tuesday” is, however, the nominal term and the one most widely used.)

In the spring of 2007, 24 states with over half the delegates to the national conventions moved to change their primary dates to February 5, 2008, creating the largest “Super Tuesday” to date. Newswriters and political pundits noted that it would dwarf the Super Tuesday primaries in previous cycles.[7] With only four states holding elections on the year’s other Super Tuesday of March 4, 2008, one pundit said “this year, however, Super Tuesday isn’t so super.”[8]

Democratic primaries Hillary Clinton Barack Obama
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 12 11
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 834 847
Republican primaries John McCain Mitt Romney Mike Huckabee Ron Paul
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 9 7 5 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 511 176 147 10
Main article: Super Tuesday, 2012
Super Tuesday in 2012 took place on March 6, 2012, totaling 419 delegates (18.3% of the total) in 10 states on the Republican side.[9] (The Democratic primarieswere uncontested as incumbent President Obama was the assured nominee.) While the impact of this week in 2012 was dwarfed by preceding Super Tuesday contests, frontrunner Mitt Romney was able to pad his lead significantly, with wins in six states and over half the delegates at stake going into his column. However, Santorum’s three wins (and a near-win in Ohio) allowed him to carry on for at least another month.

Republican primaries Mitt Romney Rick Santorum Newt Gingrich Ron Paul
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 6 3 1 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday (OH 4 unalloc.) 225 89 80 21
Super Tuesday in the 2016 election cycle is scheduled to be held on March 1, 2016. This date has been dubbed the “SEC Primary”, since many of the participating states are represented in the U.S. collegiate Southeastern Conference.[10][11]

The participating states include: Alabama, Alaska Republican caucuses, Arkansas, Colorado caucuses, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota caucuses, Oklahoma,Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Wyoming Republican caucuses.[11]

President Obama named federal appeals judge Merrick Garland on Wednesday as his pick to succeed Antonin Scalia on the U.S. Supreme Court – setting up a showdown with Republicans who have vowed to block the choice.

Obama, who said he went through a rigorous and comprehensive screening process, said Garland would bring “integrity, modesty and an even-handedness” to the Supreme Court.

“I said I would take this process seriously, and I did,” Obama said at the Rose Garden ceremony.

Yet within minutes, Republicans doubled down on their opposition to confirming any nominee in an election year, insisting that the vacant seat not be filled until a new president is sworn in.

“It is a president’s constitutional right to nominate a Supreme Court justice and it is the Senate’s constitutional right to act as a check on a president and withhold its consent,” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said on the Senate floor.

Obama, anticipating the swift resistance, urged Republicans to reconsider, adding it would be unprecedented for Garland not to at least get a hearing.

“I hope they’re fair. That’s all,” Obama said. “To give him a fair hearing and up or down vote.”

Obama said earlier Wednesday that it was both his “constitutional duty to nominate a justice and one of the most important decisions that I – or any president – will make.”

He added, “I’m doing my job. I hope that our senators will do their jobs, and move quickly to consider my nominee.”

A Senate confirmation is required for any nominee to join the bench.

Before the announcement, Sen. Mike Lee, R-Utah, also told Fox News that neither he nor his GOP colleagues on the Senate Judiciary Committee would back down and declared once more he would stop the nomination from going forward.

“We’ve been clear,” Lee said of his plan to reject Garland’s nomination.

Garland has served under both Republicans and Democrats. He clerked for the court’s liberal icon, Justice William J. Brennan Jr. In 1997, 32 Republicans voted in favor of his nomination, including seven who are still members of the Senate.

Garland was mentioned as a possible nominee when Justice Paul Stevens retired in 2010.

The vacancy ultimately went to Justice Elena Kagan.

Sen. Chuck Schumer of New York, the No. 3 Democratic leader, called Garland’s section, “a bipartisan choice,” adding: “If the Republicans can’t support him, who can they support?”

Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, who spoke to Obama Wednesday morning, said in brief remarks on the Senate floor that Republicans must act on the president’s choice. “He’s doing his job this morning, they should do theirs,” said the Nevada Democrat.

JUPITER, Fla. — The media advisory read, “Donald J. Trump for President Press Conference.” On GOP frontrunner Donald Trump’s campaign website, under “Schedule,” it said, “Press Conference in Palm Beach, FL” with the location listed at Mar-a-Lago, Trump’s private Palm Beach club.
Dickerson on Trump’s momentum, where Rubio’s supporters turn
And Trump took the stage in front of supporters, with reporters exiled to the back primed to yell questions, just as the campaign has set up at three previous election night events. Everything seemed normal – normal for a Trump election night, anyway.

One problem: Trump took the stage, spoke for about twenty minutes, and then left without taking questions, which is typically the point of a press conference.

There was no infomercial-like touting of the Trump brand like last week. There were no “Trump Steaks” off to the side. It was just another odd election night with Trump.

NEW YORK – In what could have been the final Democratic presidential debate of the 2016 election, Bernie Sanders, the 74-year-old socialist insurgent, positioned himself as the future of the Democratic Party, while Hillary Clinton steamrolled her rival with a steady stream of facts and pragmatism.

Thursday’s debate at Brooklyn’s Navy Yard, the ninth this cycle, was the most contentious yet, and it came just days before the make-or-break New York primary on April 19.

“History has outpaced Secretary Clinton,” Sanders said, a day after 27,000 (mostly) young people filled Washington Square Park in Manhattan to see him.

Sanders made that point discussing criminal justice reform, an issue that underscores more than any other how far the Democratic Party has come during Clinton’s career in public life. Her introduction to the political stage came in 1992, when her husband, then-Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton, made a show of taking time off the presidential campaign trail to oversee the execution of a black man in Arkansas.

Hillary Clinton has evolved with her party and adroitly found the pulse of the broad Democratic coalition. Where she’s out of step with the base, it’s by choice, such as her defense Thursday night of a $12 federal minimum wage instead of the $15 floor favored by Sanders and most labor unions.

4/14/16, 10:07 PM ET
Sanders calls ‘super predator’ a racist term
The debate reminded voters that Clinton has been in the center of politics for a long time and has had to abandon a lot of former positions to get here.

Her invocation of “super predators” once in the 1990s has haunted her and her husband on the campaign trail this year. “It was a racist term, and everybody knew it was a racist term,” Sanders said Thursday.

Sanders has been in politics a long time as well but always on the outskirts. The progressive base, though so far not the wide party coalition, has caught up with where Sanders has been along.

“I think the future of the Democratic Party is not simply raising money from wealthy campaign contributors,” he said on his signature issue about campaign finance.

The dynamic produced a fiery and illuminating debate. Here are five takeaways.

A debate conducted in all caps

All signs suggested this would be the most feisty debate yet between the Democratic nominees, and it did not disappoint. The tone was loud – the debate was conducted at a near yell for the entire two hours – and at times even sarcastic.

“Secretary Clinton called them out?” Sanders said of his rival’s tough talk on Wall Street. “Oh, my goodness, they must have been really scared by this. Was that before or after you received huge sums of money from them?”

The rowdy crowd, stacked with supporters of both sides, cheered on their candidates and booed the other. Each campaign was given 400 tickets to hand out to loyal fans.
4/14/16, 9:25 PM ET
Clinton: Sanders also attacking Obama over Super PACs

The candidates repeatedly spoke over each other, leading moderator Wolf Blitzer of CNN to scold them like children. “You’re both screaming at each other. The voters won’t be able to hear either of you,” he said.

When not talking past each other, they glared and rolled their eyes.

Clinton on offense

Clinton has typically alternated between ignoring and attacking Sanders, but tonight, she delivered some of her fiercest pummeling yet.

She came swinging immediately out of the gate, saying Sanders was out of his depth on foreign policy and unable to talk about it “without having some paper in front of him.”

In one sentence, she summed up her argument: “It’s easy to diagnose the problem; it’s harder to do something about the problem.”

Clinton landed blows once again on guns. “He kept his word to the NRA,” she said of Sanders. And she delivered one of the loudest applause lines of the entire night by noting that throughout so many debates, “We’ve not had one question about a woman’s right to make her own decisions about abortion.”


Jewish voters make up nearly 1 of every 7 New York Democratic primary voters, according to a new NBC News poll, and Israel emerged as a key issue between Clinton and Sanders.

The candidates played against type on the Israeli-Palestinian debate, with Sanders, who is Jewish, speaking up for the rights of Palestinians, while the more hawkish Clinton advocated for Israel’s conservative government. The argument at times was a toxic well of lefty political debates, with each adopting positions that would be familiar to any college dorm room debater.

Sander criticized Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s rigidity. And he knocked Clinton for devoting so little time to the plight of Palestinians in her recent speech to AIPAC, the Jewish lobby group that Sanders snubbed last month by declining to speak to them.

Clinton defended Netanyahu – his job is “very difficult,” she said – and said the U.S. should engage in the region only “without ever undermining Israel’s security.”

New York state of mind

Both candidates claim New York connections, but Clinton, the state’s former senator, worked harder to highlight them. “I love being in Brooklyn. This is great,” Clinton said at one point. In her opening remarks, she made sure to praise “New York values” – the term Sen. Ted Cruz used to smear Donald Trump as an East Coast liberal.
4/14/16, 11:08 PM ET
Sanders predicts nomination win

Sanders, with his outer-borough accent, declares his origin with every word he speaks. But he reserved direct appeals for his closing argument. “I grew up in Brooklyn the son of an immigrant,” he said, telling his family’s story.

Meanwhile, Sanders continued to downplay Clinton’s large wins with Southern black voters. He got “murdered” in the Deep South, he acknowledged, but “we are out of the Deep South now.” It’s a risky proposition for a candidate who needs to perform better with people of color and who owes many of his own wins to red states like Utah and Nebraska.

Failure to disclose

Clinton still doesn’t have a good answer on why she hasn’t released transcripts of the paid speeches she gave to Goldman Sachs and other private groups for hundreds of thousands of dollars each.

This time, rather than trying to answer the question. Clinton pivoted to attacking Sanders on other issues. First, she moved to a financial reform vote Sanders took and, when that didn’t satisfy the moderators, hit him for not releasing his tax returns.

That led to Sanders revealing that he still doesn’t have a great answer on that subject. “Jane does our taxes. We’ve been a little bit busy, you’ll excuse us,” Sanders said of his wife. He did, however, announce that he will release his 2014 tax returns Friday.

2016 General Election Match-Ups

Looking ahead to some possible November election match-ups between the remaining presidential candidates, registered voters give Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton a 10-point lead over Donald Trump, the same as last month.

But Clinton does not fare as well against the other two Republican candidates actively seeking their party’s nomination — Ted Cruz and John Kasich. Clinton holds just a three-point lead over Cruz, and she trails Kasich by six points in head-to-head match-ups.


Clinton’s Democratic rival, Bernie Sanders, fares better. Bernie Sanders beats all three Republican candidates among registered voters: he holds a 17-point lead over Trump, a 12-point lead over Cruz, and a five-point lead over John Kasich.


2016 General Election Match-Ups: The Demographics

Women and younger voters favor the Democratic candidate – whether Clinton or Sanders – in all of these scenarios, with Trump faring the worst among these two groups. Bernie Sanders is the stronger candidate among younger voters, and he outpaces Hillary Clinton among men. While men choose all three of the Republican candidates over Clinton by double-digit margins, Sanders runs evenly with Trump and Cruz among men (though he loses to Kasich).

2016 Primaries – Results, Calendar and Polls – CBS News
Independents vote Democratic against both Donald Trump and Ted Cruz no matter which candidate runs against them. Trump does particularly poorly with independents, losing them by 18 points against Clinton and 26 points against Sanders.

John Kasich – the only Republican who beats Hillary Clinton in these match-ups – wins against Clinton among independents by nine points, but loses independents against Sanders by six points. Kasich gets strong support against both Clinton and Sanders from voters over 65.


Nearly six in 10 registered voters are now paying a lot of attention to the presidential campaign, and interest is about the same among both Democrats and Republicans. Among this group of voters, John Kasich has a slight lead over Bernie Sanders. Trump does slightly better among this group as well, though he still trails both Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders.

Views of the Candidates

The two party’s frontrunners are both the best known and the most disliked candidates among registered voters overall. Sixty-three percent of registered voters view Donald Trump unfavorably, a six-point increase from just last month. Trump’s unfavorable rating has risen 10 points among independent voters.

On the Democratic side, Hillary Clinton fares better, but over half (54 percent) of registered voters still view Clinton unfavorably, similar to a month ago. Ted Cruz is also viewed negatively – more than twice as many voters view him unfavorably (48 percent) than favorably (22 percent).

Bernie Sanders and John Kasich are both viewed more favorably than unfavorably, though just over half still don’t have an opinion of Kasich.

All of the candidates have net favorable ratings among the members of their respective parties, but Democrats are more favorable towards their two potential nominees. About six in 10 Democrats view both Clinton and Sanders favorably, though more view Clinton unfavorably (20 percent) than Sanders (12 percent).

In contrast, just about half of Republicans view Donald Trump favorably, while less than half have favorable opinions of Ted Cruz or John Kasich. Negative views are also higher among Republicans for their candidates, particularly for Trump and Cruz — about a third of Republicans have unfavorable opinions of each of them. It’s noteworthy that just under half of Republicans don’t have an opinion of Kasich.

Most independents view Trump, Clinton, and Cruz unfavorably, though they have a net favorable opinion of both John Kasich and Bernie Sanders.

Views of Trump

For voters who view Trump favorably, his outspokenness is most often volunteered as what they like best about him (27 percent), followed by what they see as his honesty and integrity (15 percent). Further down on the list are that they think he’s not beholden to special interests (9 percent), that he’s a political outsider (8 percent

Ohio Gov. John Kasich will suspend his presidential campaign on Wednesday, senior campaign advisers tell NBC News.

Kasich cancelled a press conference in Virginia earlier in the day and announced he would make a statement in Columbus, Ohio, Thursday afternoon.

The decision comes one day after Kasich finished a distant third in the Indiana primary. Top campaign aides had vowed that the governor would stay in the race, even after Ted Cruz, who formed an informal alliance with Kasich, suspended his campaign.

RELATED: It’s Donald Trump’s GOP after Ted Cruz drops out

Kasich will end his run with just one primary victory, which came in his home state of Ohio. He remained in the race long after he was mathematically eliminated from clinching the GOP nomination, arguing that no candidate will earn a majoirity of the delegates ahead of the convention in Cleveland, Ohio, this summer.

But Donald Trump’s commanding win in Indiana on Tuesday made stopping the front-runner nearly impossible. Party leaders like Republican National Committee Chair Reince Priebus called Trump the “presumptive nominee” even with Kasich still in the race.

Though Kasich suspends his campaign as one of the final two remaining GOP candidates, he currently sits fourth in total delegates earned, trailing Trump, Cruz and Marco Rubio – who suspended his campaign March 15.

Kasich campaigned on a message of positivity, largely trying to stay away from the personal attacks that have defined the tumultuous Republican primary. The former congressman earned a number of high-profile endorsements, and voters on the campaign trail frequently thanked him for delivering an optimistic message. In addition to his Ohio victory, he earned a surprisingly strong second-place finish in New Hampshire, where he soundly beat better known rivals like Jeb Bush and Chris Christie.

In the final weeks of their campaigns, Kasich and Cruz entered into an informal alliance. Each focused their campaigns’ efforts on nominating contests where they had the best shot at defeating Trump. But the agreement proved ineffective in the Hoosier State, where Trump easily rolled to victory even though Kasich did not compete in the state. An NBC News/Wall Street Journal/Marist poll showed the pact was largely unpopular among GOP primary voters.

The governor justified his continuation in the race by arguing he is the best Republican to defeat the Democratic nominee in a general election. Out of the final three remaining candidates, Kasich was the only one who consistently beat Hillary Clinton in one-on-one polling.

“You win a primary, you lose the general, what’s the point?” Kasich said last month at an MSNBC town hall. “What do you hang a certificate on your wall? …I’m the only one who consistently beats Hillary.”

Elizabeth Warren on VP nod: ‘I’m not thinking about another job’
05/11/16 11:49 AM—UPDATED 05/11/16 12:20 PM

By Carrie Dann
Elizabeth Warren is declining to say whether she would consider running on the Democratic ticket with Hillary Clinton, insisting instead that she’s focused on her current job and that Democrats still have to “get all of our nominations settled.”

Asked during an interview with Mic whether or not she would consider serving as Hillary Clinton’s vice president, Warren demurred, saying “I love my job. I’m here in the United States Senate doing exactly what the people of Massachusetts sent me here to do.”

“This is something we’ve got to get all of our nominations settled on the Democratic side,” she added. “For me, I’m going to keep doing my job every single day and I’m not thinking about another job.”

Warren added that she has not spoken to Clinton recently.

The progressive Massachusetts senator is considered most ideologically aligned with Senate colleague Bernie Sanders, who shares her aggressive rhetoric on income inequality and Wall Street.

‘But Warren has pointedly declined to endorse either candidate in the Democratic race, focusing instead on attacks aimed at presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump.

Donald J. Trump pushed back aggressively on Thursday against what he called “false smears” from women who claimed unwanted advances, seeking to stabilize his campaign as Michelle Obama declared “it doesn’t matter what party you belong to, no woman deserves to be treated this way.”

The New York Times reported on Wednesday night that Mr. Trump had touched two women inappropriately, groping them and kissing them forcefully in ways that echoed the boasts of being able to sexually assault women that he made in a 2005 video that was unearthed last week. Other news organizations, including The Palm Beach Post, BuzzFeed and People magazine, reported stories about women who had similar encounters with Mr. Trump, who has said that he never acted on his “locker-room talk” in the 2005 video.

In a series of messages posted on Twitter on Thursday morning, Mr. Trump said that the story in The Times was a “total fabrication” and denied the incident described by Natasha Stoynoff, the writer for People magazine, who said that Mr. Trump forced his tongue down her throat while she was working on an assignment about his first anniversary with his wife Melania.

At a rally in West Palm Beach, Fla., Mr. Trump lashed out at the media for buttressing Hillary Clinton’s campaign, calling the reports about his inappropriate behavior “false smears.”

“Anyone who challenges them is deemed a racist, a sexist, a xenophobe and morally deformed,” he said of the media, repeatedly singling out The Times.

“They will seek to destroy everything about you, including your reputation,” Mr. Trump said. “They will lie, lie lie and they will do worse than that.”

Mr. Trump also threatened to take legal action in response to the new allegations and warned through his lawyer that he might sue The Times for libel if it did not retract the article and apologize.

“Your article is reckless, defamatory and constitutes libel per se,” Marc E.Kasowitz, Mr. Trump’s lawyer, wrote in a letter to The Times. “It is apparent from, among other things, the timing of the article, that it is nothing more than a politically motivated effort to defeat Mr. Trump’s candidacy.”

Eileen Murphy, a spokeswoman for The Times, said in a statement, “We stand by the story, which falls clearly into the realm of public service journalism.”

The Clinton campaign said that the latest revelations were more evidence that Mr. Trump is unfit to be president and that they showed that he lied on the debate stage on Sunday night.

At a rally in New Hampshire, Mrs. Obama, the first lady, ripped into Mr. Trump and said that his treatment of women was a sign weakness. “We simply cannot endure this or expose our children to it any longer, not for another minute let alone another four years,” Mrs. Obama said.

She added, “Now is the time to stand up and say enough is enough.”

The Trump campaign has been thrown into turmoil by the allegations and the damage that the video has done to his standing with women and with the Republican leaders who have disavowed him or revoked their endorsements.

National and state polls show Mr. Trump’s support has cratered in the last two weeks. In an effort to turn things around, he has stepped up his personal attacks on Mrs. Clinton and her husband, former President Bill Clinton. Mr. Trump has also dispatched his daughter, Ivanka, to the Pennsylvania suburbs on Thursday in the hope that she can lift his standing in the crucial swing state.

Some of Mr. Trump’s staunchest allies have been unusually critical of him during the most difficult stretch of his campaign.

Newt Gingrich, the former House speaker and presidential candidate in 2012 who wanted to be Mr. Trump’s running mate, suggested on Thursday that there were two Donald Trumps.

“There’s a big Trump and a little Trump,” he said in an appearance on the Fox Business Network. “The little Trump is frankly pathetic.”

However, not all of Mr. Trump’s supporters are ready to ditch him.

Jerry Falwell Jr., a prominent evangelical Christian leader who is the president of Liberty University in Virginia, said that he did not believe the allegations made against Mr. Trump and defended his character.

“That videotape that was released last week, I think there’s a different Donald Trump now,” Mr. Falwell told CNN. “Unlike Hillary, I believe all people are redeemable, and I believe his life has changed.”

At Mr. Trump’s rally in West Palm Beach, the candidate’s most ardent fans stood by him.

“I hope it’s not true, but I can’t look at that right now,” said Karen Hainline, 54, of Wellington, Fla. “I have to look at who is going to run our country and make jobs. We’re getting people beheaded in our own country. We need security.”

The battleground map is shifting once again in Donald Trump’s favor, according to the latest Fox News Electoral Scorecard, portending a potentially tight race Tuesday against Hillary Clinton, who continues to hold the electoral-vote advantage.

According to an update to the scorecard released Monday, Clinton can still get to the necessary 270 electoral votes by winning all the states rated “solid” or “leaning” Democratic.

But just barely. Doing so would get Clinton to 274.

Trump is looking at a narrow – but expanding – path to 270, and he could win by snatching up the toss-ups and flipping at least one state currently seen as leaning toward Clinton.


The following updates were made Monday morning to the Fox News Decision Team’s ratings for key battlegrounds:

Predictions Map
See the Fox News 2016 battleground prediction map and make your own election projections. See Predictions Map →

Arizona changes from “toss up” to “lean Republican”
Iowa changes from “toss up” to “lean Republican”
Nevada changes from “toss up” to “lean Democrat”
North Carolina changes from “lean Democrat” to “toss up”
Utah changes from “toss up” to “lean Republican”
All but the rating change in Nevada reflect an improving picture for the Republican nominee, even as the latest polls show a mixed picture. A Fox News poll released Monday morning showed Clinton expanding her lead to 4 points nationally.

If Trump wins the “solid Republican” states along with those currently seen as leaning in his direction he’d come away with 215 electoral votes. Winning the toss-up states and their 49 electoral votes wouldn’t be enough for Trump — he’d have to steal a blue state.

Trump and Clinton are both keeping an aggressive campaign schedule on the eve of the election, trying to drive out supporters in the final swing.

Trump, speaking Monday in Saratoga, Fla., the first of five rallies, said if he wins, “corrupt politicians and their donors lose.”

On the heels of the FBI once again closing its Clinton email investigation, he said: “Now it’s time for the American people to deliver justice at the ballot box.”

Before embarking on a final campaign swing through three battleground states, Clinton told reporters that she has “some work to do to bring the country together” and that she wants to be president for those who vote for her and those who don’t.

In the latest ratings, North Carolina was shifted to “toss up” amid a heated race for the critical battleground.

Clinton long held a small lead in the polls there, but the race has tightened to the point where neither candidate has a clear advantage.

Utah has been a hard state to gauge, with independent candidate Evan McMullin surging in several October polls. McMullin could still potentially surprise Tuesday night, but Trump now seems to have the advantage.

Nevada, meanwhile, is shifting to “lean Democrat” as early voting in the state suggests a turnout surge among Hispanic voters coming out against Trump.


PEABODY — Following state Rep. Leah Cole’s weekend announcement of her plans to resign from office, House Speaker Robert DeLeo can only confirm at this point that there will be a special election, but not when.

“In the near future, Speaker DeLeo, in consultation with the Secretary of State, will issue a precept setting dates for a special election to fill the vacancy in the Twelfth Essex District,” said Whitney Ferguson, a staffer in DeLeo’s office, via email.
Peabody is in the midst of its regular city election, with Election Day quickly approaching Nov. 3.

“The Speaker wishes Representative Cole success in her future endeavors and thanks her for her service to the Commonwealth and City of Peabody,” Ferguson wrote.

Cole, 26 and a Peabody Republican, released a statement Sunday, saying she planned to step down after just a term-and-a-half in office to pursue her nursing degree full-time.

She plans to resign effective Sept. 28. Cole was first elected in a special election in 2013 to succeed late Peabody Rep. Joyce Spiliotis, who had died in office. Cole was re-elected in 2014.

The 12th Essex District represents most of the city except for one precinct in Ward 5 and all of Ward 6.


LYNN — City Council President Daniel Cahill announced his candidacy Thursday afternoon for the special election to fill the legislative seat being vacated by veteran state Rep. Robert Fennell. His announcement came an hour after the Massachusetts House of Representatives approved a May 10 special election to fill the 10th Essex District seat.

“Having served the residents of Lynn over the past 12 years as a School Committee member, Councilor at large and Council president, I can continue my service as your next state representative,” Cahill wrote in a Facebook posting.

Fennell, a 21-year House veteran, is scheduled in a week, perhaps longer, to start his job as Water and Sewer CommissionDeputy Director. The commission hired him last December with a $119,000 annual salary.

Elected to the School Committee in 2004 and to the council in 2007, Cahill has been Council president since January, 2014. Cahill said he will continue serving on the council , while running for representative.

“You don’t replace 21 years of seniority and experience, but I feel I am the candidate who can hit the ground running,” Cahill said.

Nomination papers for the special election were sent by the Massachusetts Secretary of State’s election division to the City Clerk’s office on Thursday. Candidates must file by 150 certified signatures of voters by March 1. Democratic and Republican primaries are scheduled for April 12.

As of 5 p.m. Thursday, Cahill was the only candidate to take out papers for the May 10 election.

“I don’t see a lot of people going for it,” said former Councilor at large Loretta Cuffe O’Donnell.

The 10th Essex District includes voters living in Ward 1, Precincts 3 and 4; Ward 2; Ward 3, Precincts 1 and 3; Ward 4, Precincts 1 and 2 and Ward 5, Precincts 2 and 3.

Fennell is the fourth area legislator in three years to leave office for other pursuits. Peabody state Rep. Leah Cole announced her exit last year and former state Reps. Stephen Walsh and Kathi-Anne Reinstein departed the House in 2014.

There is a special election underway to fill Cole’s seat. Former Councilor Brendan Crighton won election to the West Lynn andNahant seat Walsh represented in a three-candidate Democratic primary and longtime Reinstein aide RoseLee Vincent now represents Revere in the House along with House Speaker Robert DeLeo.

By Jon Schuppe
Republican presidential candidate Ben Carson announced Wednesday he would not attend the next GOP debate in Detroit, admitting that his poor primary performance left him without much of a plan.

RELATED: Ben Carson has no plan to win the nomination – or drop out

“I do not see a political path forward in light of last evening’s Super Tuesday primary results,” Carson said in a statement Wednesday afternoon.

Carson picked up just eight delegates in the 12 nominating contests held Tuesday, by far the least of any of the five remaining Republican candidates.

The announcement appeared to indicate he was withdrawing from the race. But Carson, a wealthy retired surgeon, did not explicitly say that was the case. He vowed to continue his “grassroots movement.”

Carson said he’d clarify things in a speech at the Conservative Political Action Conference in Maryland on Friday.

Who Spent the Most on the Air in Super Tuesday States?

From our ad-tracking partners at SMG Delta, here’s what the Republican candidates spent in the 11 states where they competed tonight.

Team Trump: $1.1 million

Team Kasich: $282,000

Team Rubio $4 million

Team Cruz: $7 million

And here’s what the Democrats spent:

Team Sanders $5.2 million

Team Clinton $6.4 million

Clinton’s Big Margins with African-American Voters

One of the big headlines on the Democratic side tonight is just how overwhelming Clinton’s support was with African-Americans

Take a look at these margins among black voters, according to exit polls:


Clinton 92%

Sanders 6%


Clinton 90%

Sanders 10%


Clinton 83%

Sanders 16%


Clinton 75%

Sanders 22%


Clinton 80%

Sanders 18%


Clinton 85

Sanders 12


Clinton 84

Sanders 16

Bernie Sanders

Bernie Sanders is running for the Democratic nomination even though he has never officially described himself as a Democrat before. A self-described Democratic Socialist, the Vermont senator is an independent in politics and chooses to caucus with the Democrats in the Senate. Sanders has had a long career in politics, rising from mayor of Burlington (1981 to 1989) to the U.S. House (1991-2007), then the Senate (2007-present).

When his campaign started, Sanders was viewed as a kind of protest candidate. The unofficial but widely-acknowledged leader of the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, decided not to run despite an effort to draft her into the race. So Sanders opted to run instead to represent similar views.

The Democratic Socialist: Bernie Sanders Scouting Report 2:41
As expected, Sanders has proposed policies, like free tuition at all public colleges and a Medicare-for-all health system, that are to the left of Hillary Clinton and the Democratic establishment.

A big part of Sanders’ authenticity is his consistent commitment to economic inequality reform. He bemoans rising income inequality and the growing concentration of wealth. His message has helped close the gap nationally between him and Clinton, but is viewed as unlikely to defeat Clinton.

So far in the primary contest, Sanders has seen victories in New Hampshire, Vermont, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Minnesota.

Hillary Clinton

It’s her second and likely final shot at the Democratic nomination. Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched her 2016 presidential bid on April 12 with a Tweet and a campaign video in which she cast herself as the champion of a middle class still struggling to emerge from recession. “Americans have fought their way back from tough economic times, but the deck is still stacked in favor of those at the top,” Clinton said. “Everyday Americans need a champion, and I want to be that champion.” Clinton repeated that theme in the formal announcement speech she gave June 13 on Roosevelt Island in New York. “Prosperity can’t be just for CEOs and hedge fund managers. Democracy can’t be just for billionaires and corporations,” she said.

Since her announcement, Clinton has since become even more bold while speaking about economic issues. The unexpected rise of Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders has pushed Clinton’s economic posture to the left, including announcing her support of debt-free college, crack down of large financial institutions and opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal.

After losing a fierce campaign against then-Senator Barack Obama for the Democratic nomination in 2008, Clinton served four years as his Secretary of State. Clinton has been a fixture in American politics since her husband, Bill Clinton, was elected president in 1992. The former First Lady began her electoral career by winning a senate seat from New York in 2000, just as the Clintons were preparing to leave the White House.

Clinton has faced a unexpected challenge by independent Sen. Bernie Sanders who has appealed to young voters and middle income Americans. Clinton, however, continues to be the Democratic frontrunner, winning 10 states so far in the primary contest.

Donald Trump
“presumptive nominee”


Donald Trump has been a fixture of American culture for decades. As a real estate mogul, Trump has made his mark — literally — on cities across the country, branding hotels, casinos, resorts and even airlines with the “Trump” name. His 1987 best-selling book, “The Art of the Deal” helped Trump become a celebrity, a status that was cemented with his reality television series, “The Apprentice.”

Trump had flirted with running for president many times and in 2000, he briefly ran for the Reform Party nomination. Few took him seriously in 2015 when he began talking about running for the Republican Party nomination until he actually announced and began seriously campaigning.

Donald Trump Scouting Report: Big Bucks, Big Words 2:56
In a much-criticized announcement speech, Trump made illegal immigration his top cause, calling Mexicans crossing the southern border into the United States criminals and rapists. Trump’s rallies attracted large crowds and the businessman began rising in the polls, eventually rising to the top of the GOP field in early primary states and nationally.

While his poll numbers rose, so did his rhetoric. Trump has criticized his fellow Republicans, often in personal ways. He has criticized Washington leaders of both parties for being ineffective in halting illegal immigration and making international trade deals and has made a rallying cry of his campaign slogan, “Make America Great Again.”

The results are in, here is how the North Shore voted.

Democratic Primary

Lynn: Clinton 6,068 (50.88%) Sanders 5,580 (46.79%)

Saugus: Sanders 2129 (48.63%) Clinton 2,112 (48.24%)

Swampscott: Clinton 1,913 (53.81%) Sanders 1,590 (44.72%)

Peabody: Clinton 4,986 (50.32%) Sanders 4,534 (45.76%)

Revere: Clinton 3,690 (52.27%) Sanders 3,060 (43.35%)

Lynnfield: Clinton 991 (52.24%) Sanders 859 (45.28%)

Marblehead: Clinton 2,701 (55.06%) Sanders (43.91%)

Nahant: Clinton 498 (50.50%) Sanders 467 (47.36%)

Republican Primary

Lynn: Trump 2,491 (63.05%) Rubio 479 (12.12%) Kasich 395 (10.00%) Cruz 384 (9.72%) Carson 87 (2.20%)

Saugus: Trump 2,512 (68.45%) Rubio 428 (11.66%) Kasich 330 (8.99%) Cruz 259 (7.06%) Carson 58 (1.58%

Swampscott: Trump 824 (45.44%) Kasich 438 (24.15%) Rubio 324 (17.87%) Cruz 129 (7.11%) Carson 30 (1.65%)

Peabody: Trump 4,222 (61.37%) Rubio 921 (13.38%) Kasich 870 (12.64%) Cruz 509 (7.39%) Carson 148 (2.15%)

Revere: Trump 2,280 (72.92%) Rubio 294 (9.40%) Kasich 223 (7.13%) Cruz 205 (6.56%) Carson 45 (1.44%)

Lynnfield: Trump 1,381 (56.06%) Kasich 409 (16.60%) Rubio 391 (15.87%) Cruz 192 (7.79%) Carson 34 (1.38%)

Marblehead: Trump 1,230 (39.74%) Kasich 830 (26.81%) Rubio 696 (22.48%) Cruz 195 (6.30%) Carson 47 (1.51%)

Nahant: Trump 280 (58.33%) Kasich 91 (18.95%) Rubio 57 (11.87%) Cruz (6.25%) Carson 16 (3.33%)

New York (CNN)Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders tangled over her judgment and his grasp of policy in a tense and at times personal debate here Thursday, less than a week before the pivotal New York primary.

Held in prime time and on a weeknight — unlike most Democratic debates — the CNN-sponsored event was the highest-profile opportunity for both campaigns to make their final arguments before Tuesday’s crucial vote in a state where both contenders have strong roots. Clinton is looking to New York to solidify her role as front-runner, while a strong showing — or a victory — for Sanders would deal a significant blow to her confidence and bolster his campaign’s argument that the party’s so-called super delegates should switch their allegiance to him.
Here are six takeaways from the most combative Democratic debate yet:
1. A question of judgment
Bernie Sanders on Clinton: ‘I do question her judgment’

Bernie Sanders on Clinton: ‘I do question her judgment’ 02:44
The Democratic candidates took sharp aim at one another almost immediately over a series of issues, including the Iraq War, Wall Street and questions about judgment and qualifications to be president.
Both contenders shifted back and forth between offense and defense, a sharp departure from the calmer tone of the party’s earlier debates.
Sanders began by explaining a recent comment he made on the campaign trail in which he suggested Clinton was “unqualified” to be president.
“Does Secretary Clinton have the experience and intelligence to be president? Of course she does. But I do question her judgment,” Sanders said, pointing to her Senate vote for war in Iraq, her willingness for her campaign to benefit from millions of dollars spent on her behalf by super PACs and her relationship to Wall Street.
“Senator Sanders did call me unqualified. I’ve been called a lot of things in my life. That was a first,” Clinton responded, pointing to the fact that she was elected twice to the Senate and chosen as secretary of state.
Democratic debate: CNN’s Reality Check team vets the claims
Clinton then counter-attacked, citing an interview Sanders gave to the New York Daily News in which he struggled to provide specifics about his plans for breaking up banks and other issues.
“Talk about judgment and talk about the kinds of difficulty he had answering questions, including his core issues,” Clinton said.
The sparring continued throughout the night, so much so that at one point, CNN debate moderator Wolf Blitzer moved to break up the fighters.
“If you’re both screaming at each other, the viewers won’t be able to hear either of you,” Blitzer said after Clinton and Sanders spent several seconds talking over each other.

2. Clinton further than ever from a general election pivot
Political Prediction Market
Hillary Clinton

to win New York Democratic Primary

live odds
Will the odds go up or down?
Just a month ago, Clinton appeared poised and eager to pivot to the general election and start building a case against a Republican nominee.
But Thursday’s attacks on Sanders showed that her campaign realizes that she has to turn all of her attention to her left flank.
At previous debates, she seemed to spend as much time talking about Republicans as Sanders. Not in Brooklyn.
Clinton arrived at Thursday’s debate with policy knives sharpened and ready. An hour before the contest, her campaign released a memo outlining the case she would make against Sanders and repeatedly released briefings throughout the night that both tried to defend her from attacks. At every turn possible, she criticized him on gun regulation, the release date of his tax returns, how he would break up big banks, provide Medicare for all and other issues.
READ: The most memorable lines from the Democratic debate in Brooklyn
Her campaign knows that next week’s primary could be a major opportunity for her to stop Sanders’ fast-growing momentum — or else. With time running out before Democrats go the polls, Clinton’s aggressive tactics suggest that she knows she needs to start making some of the blows against Sanders count.
3. ‘Think big’ or get things done?

A key difference in Clinton’s and Sanders’ approaches to governing was on full display during the debate over climate change.
Clinton is a politician who is content with incremental change, seeing it as the most realistic — if not the only — way to achieve her goals. The Vermont senator wants sweeping change, and believes the nation’s problems are too big for singles and doubles. He wants to swing for the fences.
Their debate over climate change, in particular, highlighted their contrasting philosophies.
Find your presidential match with the 2016 Candidate Matchmaker
“Incremental steps are not enough,” Sanders said after Clinton knocked him for faulting the recent international Paris agreement on climate change.
Clinton fired back, “I don’t take a back seat to your legislation that you have introduced that you have been unable to get passed.”
This is the heart of their differences: To Sanders, the Paris climate agreement does not go far enough, and therefore isn’t good enough. To Clinton, the Paris agreement was the best deal possible.

4. Clinton won’t give on transparency
Clinton campaign won’t release speech transcripts

Clinton campaign won’t release speech transcripts 02:30

Once again, Clinton came under fire for keeping the content of her highly paid speeches to financial firms under wraps after she left the State Department.
Sanders has hammered her for refusing to release transcripts of remarks she made to companies like Goldman Sachs, gigs that have earned her millions.
“Why not just release the transcripts and put this whole issue to bed?” CNN co-moderator Dana Bash asked Clinton.
Clinton tried to use the question to criticize Sanders over financial reform, but Bash continued to press the issue. Clinton said she only would release transcripts if Republicans did the same.
“There are certain expectations when you run for president. This is a new one. And I’ve said, if everybody agrees to do it — because there are speeches for money on the other side. I know that,” Clinton said, and again pivoted to Sanders by criticizing him for not yet releasing his tax returns.
Sanders responded that he planned to release a year of tax returns Friday and would unveil more soon, which turned the attention back on Clintons’ unwillingness to release the transcripts.
The exchange highlighted Clinton’s struggle with transparency–whether it’s over her State Department emails or what she tells Wall Street behind closed doors.
5. One place where Sanders and Clinton agreed: Regrets
Hillary Clinton apologizes for husband’s crime bill

Hillary Clinton apologizes for husband’s crime bill 01:12

Clinton and Sanders both acknowledged that the aggressive measures they championed in the 1990s to fight crime have proven to have disproportionately negative affects on African American communities, a fact for which she apologized Thursday.
When asked if the move was a “net positive” in the fight against crime, Clinton defended the good intentions of the measure, saying “it had some positive aspects to it,” but conceded that as new information has come to light about the adverse affects of policy, so should approaches to problems.
“If we were to have the balance sheet on one side there are some positive actions and changes. On the other side there were decisions that were made that now we must revisit and we have to correct,” she said, adding later: “I’m sorry for the consequences that were unintended and that have had a very unfortunate impact on people’s lives. I’ve seen the results of what has happened in families and in communities. That’s why I chose to make my very first speech a year ago on this issue… because I want to focus the attention of our country and to make the changes we need to make.”
In a rare moment of agreement during an otherwise contentious night, Sanders also expressed regret for some of the outcomes of the bill.
“Much of what Secretary Clinton said was right. We had a crime bill. I voted for it. It had the Violence Against Women Act in it,” he said. “But where we are today is we have a broken criminal justice system. We have more people in jail than any other country on Earth. And in my view, what we have got to do is rethink the system from the bottom on up. And that means, for a start — and we don’t talk about this. The media doesn’t talk about it — you got 51 percent of African-American kids today who graduated high school who are unemployed or underemployed. You know what I think? Maybe we invest in jobs and education for those kids, not jails and incarceration.”
6. But no apology from Sanders on guns
The apologies largely stopped there, however, as Clinton took on Sanders over gun policy.
When Blitzer said that a parent of a victim of the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings had called on Sanders to apologize for opposing a measure that would allow victims of gun violence to sue firearms companies, he declined.
“I voted against this gun liability law because I was concerned that in rural areas all over this country, if a gun shop owner sells a weapon legally to somebody, and that person then goes out and kills somebody, I don’t believe it is appropriate that that gun shop owner who just sold a legal weapon to be held accountable and be sued,” Sanders said. “But, what I do believe is when gun shop owners and others knowingly are selling weapons to people who should not have them — somebody walks in. They want thousands of rounds of ammunition, or they want a whole lot of guns, yes, that gun shop owner or that gun manufacturer should be held liable.”
“So, Senator, do you owe the Sandy Hook families an apology?” Blitzer asked.
“No, I don’t think I owe them an apology. They are in court today, and actually they won a preliminary decision today. They have the right to sue, and I support them and anyone else who wants the right to sue.”


Iowa 2/1 – DEM, REP
New Hampshire 2/9 – DEM, REP
Nevada 2/20 – DEM, 2/23 – REP
South Carolina 2/20 – REP, 2/27 – DEM
Alabama 3/1 – DEM, REP
Alaska 3/1 – REP, 3/26 – DEM
A. Samoa 3/1 – DEM, 3/22 – REP
Arkansas 3/1 – DEM, REP
Colorado 3/1 – DEM
Georgia 3/1 – DEM, REP
Massachusetts 3/1 – DEM, REP
Minnesota 3/1 – DEM, REP
Oklahoma 3/1 – DEM, REP
Tennessee 3/1 – DEM, REP
Texas 3/1 – DEM, REP
Vermont 3/1 – DEM, REP
Virginia 3/1 – DEM, REP
Kansas 3/5 – DEM, REP
Kentucky 3/5 – REP, 5/17 – DEM
Louisiana 3/5 – DEM, REP
Maine 3/5 – REP, 3/6 – DEM
Nebraska 3/5 – DEM, 5/10 – REP
Puerto Rico 3/6 – REP, 6/5 – DEM
Hawaii 3/8 – REP, 3/26 – DEM
Idaho 3/8 – REP, 3/22 – DEM
Michigan 3/8 – DEM, REP
Mississippi 3/8 – DEM, REP
Virgin Islands 3/10 – REP, 6/4 – DEM
Guam 3/12 – REP, 5/7 – DEM
N. Mariana Is. 3/12 – DEM, 3/15 – REP
Washington D.C. 3/12 – REP, 6/14 – DEM
Wyoming 3/12 – REP, 4/9 – DEM
Florida 3/15 – DEM, REP
Illinois 3/15 – DEM, REP
Missouri 3/15 – DEM, REP
North Carolina 3/15 – DEM, REP
Ohio 3/15 – DEM, REP
Arizona 3/22 – DEM, REP
Utah 3/22 – DEM, REP
Washington 3/26 – DEM, 5/24 – REP
North Dakota 4/1 – REP, 6/7 – DEM
Wisconsin 4/5 – DEM, REP
New York 4/19 – DEM, REP
Connecticut 4/26 – DEM, REP
Delaware 4/26 – DEM, REP
Maryland 4/26 – DEM, REP
Pennsylvania 4/26 – DEM, REP
Rhode Island 4/26 – DEM, REP
Indiana 5/3 – DEM, REP
West Virginia 5/10 – DEM, REP
Oregon 5/17 – DEM, REP
California 6/7 – DEM, REP
Montana 6/7 – DEM, REP
New Jersey 6/7 – DEM, REP
New Mexico 6/7 – DEM, REP
South Dakota 6/7 – DEM, REP

Ryan on Trump effect: Can’t ‘pretend’ GOP is unified, will ‘take some work’

Published May 11, 2016

Paul Ryan: GOP must unify around ‘common principles’

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House Speaker Paul Ryan, ahead of a high-stakes sit-down with presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, said Wednesday he can’t “pretend” the GOP is unified and acknowledged it will “take some work” to bring everyone together after the bruising primary.

At the same time, Ryan – who so far has declined to endorse Trump – signaled an interest in bringing all the wings of the party together.

Speaking after a closed-door meeting with other House leaders and rank-and-file members, Ryan suggested that “to pretend we’re unified as a party” would mean going into the fall election at “half-strength.” Rather, he said he needs the party to be at “full-strength” and so wants to pursue “real unification” of all factions within the GOP.

“We cannot afford to lose this election to Hillary Clinton,” Ryan said.

Rank-and-file members have been at odds over Ryan’s surprise move last week to refrain from endorsing the now-presumptive Republican presidential nominee. Some understand the speaker may not truly be ready, and also wants to check the pulse of his colleagues. Others worry that Ryan’s hesitation is costing the party valuable fundraising time – needed to prepare for an expected battle against Hillary Clinton and the Democrats in the fall.

“It takes time to raise money,” one senior GOP Senate source told Fox News. “[Ryan’s delay] costs us a week.”

Ryan and Trump are set to meet in person on Thursday. But the first step toward a potential reconciliation was Wednesday morning’s weekly conference for House Republicans – their first since Trump all but seized the nomination last week.

Asked after that meeting what he needs to hear to fully get behind Trump, Ryan said he and Trump will have that conversation. “I don’t really know him,” he said. “We just need to get to know each other.”

He reiterated the party must “merge” and “unify.”

Trump, for his part, told Fox News earlier Wednesday that he thinks he’s “doing very fine” with Ryan, while downplaying the stakes for the meeting.

“I have a lot of respect for Paul Ryan. We’re going to have a meeting tomorrow. We’ll see what happens. If we make a deal, that will be great. And if we don’t, we will trudge forward like I’ve been doing and winning, you know, all the time,” Trump said.

Meanwhile, some GOP lawmakers indicated Wednesday they plan to back Trump but just want more clarification on his platform.

Rep. John Fleming, R-La., said he’ll get behind Trump but wants more information about his positions on abortion, national defense and immigration.

Rep. Raul Labrador, R-Idaho, said it is incumbent upon Trump to articulate his vision. He said he’ll support the nominee, but there’s a difference between supporting and “actually campaigning” for a candidate.

House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., at her own press conference, wasted no time tying Trump to her GOP colleagues on Capitol Hill. She told reporters there’s “not a dime of difference” between him and the Republicans in Congress.


Christmas or Christmas Day (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning “Christ‘s Mass“) is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,[7][8] observed most commonly on December 25[4][9][10] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][11][12] A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is prepared for by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night;[13] in some traditions, Christmastide includes an Octave.[14] Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world’s nations,[15][16][17] is celebrated culturally by a large number of non-Christian people,[1][18][19] and is an integral part of the holiday season, while some Christian groups reject the celebration. In several countries, celebrating Christmas Eve on December 24 has the main focus rather than December 25, with gift-giving and sharing a traditional meal with the family.

While the month and date of Jesus’ birth are unknown, by the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25,[20] a date later adopted in the East.[21][22] Today, most Christians celebrate Christmas on the date of December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, which is also the calendar in near-universal use in the secular world. However, some Eastern churches celebrate Christmas on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which currently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar, the day after the Western Christian Church celebrates the Epiphany. This is not a disagreement over the date of Christmas as such, but rather a disagreement over which calendar should be used to determine the day that is December 25.

The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after the day on which early Christians believed that Jesus was conceived,[23][24] or with one or more ancient polytheisticfestivals that occurred near the Roman winter solstice;[25][26] a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the “Sun of righteousness”.[23][27][28][24]

The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins.[29] Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore.[30] Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world.


Nativity tree2011.jpg

A depiction of the Nativity of Jesus with a Christmas tree backdrop
Also called Noël, Nativity, Xmas, Yule
Observed by Christians, many non-Christians[1][2]
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Commemoration of the birth of Jesus
Celebrations Gift-giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decoration, feasting etc.
Observances Church services
Frequency Annual
Related to Christmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Yule, St. Stephen’s Day, Boxing Day


Small Business Saturday


First observed in Roslindale Village, Massachusetts on November 27, 2010, it is a counterpart to Black Friday and Cyber Monday, which feature big box retail and e-commerce stores respectively. By contrast, Small Business Saturday encourages holiday shoppers to patronize brick and mortar businesses that are small and local. Small Business Saturday is a registered trademark of American Express corporation.

The first event was sponsored by American Express, in partnership with the non-profit National Trust for Historic Preservation, Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino, and Roslindale Village Main Street. In 2010, the holiday was promoted by American Express via a nationwide radio and television advertising campaign. That year Amex bought advertising inventory on Facebook, which it in turn gave to its small merchant account holders,[1] and also gave rebates to new customers to promote the event.[2][3]

American Express publicized the initiative using social media, advertising, and public relations. Many local politicians and small business groups in the United States issued proclamations concerning the campaign,[4][5][6] which generated more than one million Facebook “like” registrations and nearly 30,000 tweets under the Twitter hashtags #smallbusinesssaturday and #smallbizsaturday.[7]

Shop Small Logo 2015.jpg
Observed by United States
Celebrations Shopping
Date Saturday after U.S. Thanksgiving
2015 date November 28
2016 date November 26
2017 date November 25
2018 date November 24
Frequency annual
Related to Thanksgiving, Black Friday, Cyber Monday, Giving Tuesday, and Economics of Christmas


The Twitter hashtag #SmallBusinessSaturday has existed since early 2010 and was used to promote small businesses on any Saturday (not solely that Saturday between Black Friday and Cyber Monday). The hashtag is used in a manner similar to #FollowFriday to highlight favorite local businesses. Additionally, some small business owners have run marketing specials on the November Small Business Saturday to help capitalize on the boost in foot or online traffic, as most customers in this time period are actively shopping for the holidays.

Around the world

Small Business Saturday UK began in the United Kingdom in 2013 after the success of Small Business Saturday in the United States of America.[8]


United States presidential inauguration history

The inauguration of the president of the United States is a ceremonial event marking the commencement of a new four-year term of a president of the United States. The day a presidential inauguration occurs is known as “Inauguration Day” and occurs on January 20 (or 21st if the 20th is a Sunday). Prior to the Twentieth Amendment, the date was March 4, the day of the year on which the Constitution of the United States first took effect in 1789; the last inauguration to take place on the older date was Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s first one on March 4, 1933. The most recent public presidential inauguration ceremony, the swearing in of President Barack Obama to begin his second four-year term in office, took place on Monday, January 21, 2013. The next inauguration will be for Donald J. Trump on Friday, January 20, 2017.

The only inauguration element mandated by the United States Constitution is that the president make an oath or affirmation before that person can “enter on the Execution” of the office of the presidency. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades, speeches, and balls.

From the presidency of Andrew Jackson through that of Jimmy Carter, the primary Inauguration Day ceremony took place on the Capitol’s East Portico.[1] Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol’s West Front. The inaugurations of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol because of cold weather. The War of 1812 and World War II caused two inaugurations to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

When George Washington was inaugurated, the oath was administered by Robert Livingston, Chancellor of New York State, in 1789, and by William Cushing, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, in 1793. Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no chief justice has missed an Inauguration Day. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the chief justice has administered the oath to the president on the Sunday privately and then again the next day publicly.

When a new president takes over mid-term due to the death or resignation of a president, the oath of office is administered, but public inauguration events have not been held.



The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City[2] where he was sworn in by Robert Livingston, the Chancellor of the State of New York.[3] In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which officially became the federal capital only on June 11, 1800.[4] Inauguration Day was originally on March 4, four months after election day, but this was changed to noon on January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment in 1933.[4]

The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon’s second inauguration were marred by the passing of former President Lyndon B. Johnson two days after the inauguration. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. Because of the construction work on the center steps of the East Front, Johnson’s casket was taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state.[5] When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol.[5]

Inauguration Day is a federal holiday observed by only the federal employees who work in the District of Columbia; Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland; Arlington and Fairfax Counties in Virginia, and the cities of Alexandria and Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees and students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event[dubious ].



Inauguration platform under construction for Woodrow Wilson‘s first inauguration in 1913

Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol have been organized by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.[6]

The U.S. military have participated in Inauguration Day ceremonies since George Washington‘s, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee).

The Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC) is the legal entity that raises and distributes funds for events other than the ceremony, such as the balls and parade.


Most inaugural ceremonies were held at the Capitol Building. Washington gave his first address at Federal Hall in New York City and his second address in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Adams also gave his in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Jefferson gave both of his addresses at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Due to the restoration work on the Capitol, James Monroe’s 1817 inauguration ceremonies took place outside the Old Brick Capitol.[8] Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s fourth address was given at the White House. Depending on the weather, the ceremonial swearing-in is held outside or inside of the Capitol building.

Outdoor ceremonies were traditionally held at the eastern front of the U.S. Capitol. In June 1980, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies decided to move the ceremony to the west side of the Capitol, to save money and provide more space for spectators. Ronald Reagan was the first president inaugurated on the west front in January 1981, and an “urban legend” later developed that he had personally requested the move, to face toward his home state of California. All outdoor inaugurations since have taken place on the Capitol’s western front.[9]


Public inaugural ceremonies have been held on five different calendar dates in the year: April 30, March 4 and 5, and January 20 and 21. Washington gave his first address on April 30, 1789, and his second one on March 4, 1793, which was the commencement date for presidential terms. This March 4 date was changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Sunday exceptions[edit]

From 1793 to 1933, the inaugurations were held on March 4, with only four exceptions. Because March 4 fell on a Sunday, Presidents Monroe (2nd inauguration), Taylor, Hayes and Wilson (2nd inauguration) each gave an address on Monday, March 5. Since 1937, addresses have been given on January 20 with only three exceptions (other than following a premature end to the presidential term): Presidents Eisenhower, Reagan, and Obama each gave an address on Monday, January 21 (2nd inauguration for each). The most recent inauguration day that fell on a Sunday was January 20, 2013; the next will be on January 20, 2041.


In addition to the public, the attendees at the ceremony generally include Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, high-ranking military officers, former presidents, living Medal of Honor recipients, and other dignitaries.

The outgoing president customarily attends the inauguration, barring those cases where succession was due to his death. There have been four exceptions:

  • John Adams did not attend Jefferson’s inauguration.
  • John Quincy Adams did not attend Jackson’s inauguration.
  • Andrew Johnson did not attend Grant’s inauguration.
  • Woodrow Wilson did not attend Harding’s inauguration (but rode to the Capitol with him).

Richard Nixon left Washington, D.C., before his resignation took effect and did not attend the swearing-in ceremony of Gerald Ford, who had no inauguration.

Ceremony elements

Inauguration procedure is governed by tradition rather than the Constitution, the only constitutionally required procedure being the presidential oath of office (which may be taken anywhere, with anyone in attendance who can legally witness an oath, and at any time prior to the actual beginning of the new president’s term).[10]Traditionally, the president-elect arrives at the White House and proceeds to the inaugural grounds at the United States Capitol with the incumbent president. Only three incumbent presidents have refused to accompany the president-elect: John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Johnson.[10] Around or after 12 noon, the president takes the oath of office, usually administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, and then delivers the inaugural address.

Oaths of office

Bill Clinton takes the oath of office from Chief Justice William Rehnquist during his 1993 presidential inauguration on January 20, 1993.

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Since 1937, the vice president-elect takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the president-elect; before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The vice-president-elect takes the oath first. Unlike the president, the United States Constitution does not specify an oath of office for the vice president. Several variants of the oath have been used since 1789; the current form, which is also recited by Senators, Representatives, and other government officers, has been in use since 1884:

I, AB, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[11]

Immediately after the vice-presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail, Columbia.

At noon, the new presidential and vice presidential terms begin. At about that time, the president-elect takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution:

I <name> do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

According to Washington Irving‘s biography of George Washington, in the first inauguration, President Washington added the words “so help me God” after accepting the oath. This is confirmed by Donald R. Kennon, Chief Historian, United States Capitol Historical Society.[12] However, the only contemporaneous source that fully reproduced Washington’s oath completely lacks the religious codicil.[13] The first newspaper report that actually described the exact words used in an oath of office, Chester Arthur’s in 1881,[14] repeated the “query-response” method where the words, “so help me God” were a personal prayer, not a part of the constitutional oath. The time of adoption of the current procedure, where both the chief justice and the president speak the oath, is unknown.

There is no requirement that any book, or in particular a book of sacred text, be used to administer the oath, and none is mentioned in the Constitution. With the use of the Bible being customary for oaths, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, a Bible was generally used. Several presidents were sworn in on the George Washington Inaugural Bible.[citation needed] On some occasions, the particular passage to which it was opened has been recorded, as below. John Quincy Adams was sworn in on a book of laws.[15] At his 1963 swearing aboard Air Force One, Lyndon Johnson was sworn on a Catholic missal that belonged to his predecessor.[16][17]In addition, Franklin Pierce is definitely known to have affirmed rather than sworn by using a Law Book. There are conflicting reports concerning Herbert Hoover, but the use of a Bible is recorded and suggests that he swore in the usual fashion. Barack Obama used the Lincoln Bible for his oaths in 2009 and 2013.[18] In 2013 Obama also used a Bible that belonged to Martin Luther King, Jr..[19]

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The presidential oath has been administered by 15 chief justices, one associate justice, and two New York state judges (including only those administered at the inauguration).

Immediately after the presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail to the Chief, while simultaneously, a 21-gun salute is fired using artillery pieces from the Presidential Guns Salute Battery, 3d United States Infantry Regiment “The Old Guard” located in Taft Park, north of the Capitol. The actual gun salute begins with the first ruffle and flourish, and ‘run long’ (i.e. the salute concludes after Hail to the Chief has ended).

Inaugural address

The first inaugural address, in full, made by Barack Obama after being sworn in as the forty-fourth President of the United States on January 20, 2009. (Duration: 18 minutes, 58 seconds)

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Newly sworn-in presidents usually give a speech referred to as an inaugural address. Until William McKinley‘s first inaugural address in 1897, the president elect traditionally gave the address before taking the oath; McKinley requested the change so that he could reiterate the words of the oath at the close of his address. John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson and Chester A. Arthur gave no address, but addressed Congress four months later.[10] In each of these cases, the incoming president was succeeding a president who had died in office, and was not elected as president in the next election. Gerald Ford addressed the nation via broadcast after taking the oath, but he characterized his speech as “Not an inaugural address, not a fireside chat, not a campaign speech—just a little straight talk among friends.”[20] Fifty-four addresses have been given by thirty-seven presidents. George Washington‘s second address was the shortest (135 words), and William Henry Harrison delivered the longest (8,495 words).

Religious elements and poems

The Reverend Donn Moomawdelivers the invocation at the first inauguration of Ronald Reagan, 1981

Since 1937, the ceremony has incorporated two or more prayers. Musical works and poetry readings have been included on occasion.[21]

Other elements

Congressional luncheon

Since 1953, the president and vice president have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the leadership of the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. The luncheon is held in Statuary Hall and is organized by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, and attended by the leadership of both houses of Congress as well as guests of the president and vice president. By tradition, the outgoing president and vice president do not attend.

Presidential Procession to the White House

Since Thomas Jefferson‘s second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become a tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan in his second inauguration in 1985, due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. Reagan paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue during his first inauguration, in 1981, amid the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. In 1977, Jimmy Carter walked from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have walked only a part of the way.

Inaugural Parade

The Inaugural Parade on Pennsylvania Avenue passes the presidential reviewing stand in front of the White House in January 2005.

Following the arrival of the presidential entourage to the White House, it is customary for the president, vice-president, their respective families and leading members of the government and military to review an Inaugural Parade from an enclosed stand at the edge of the North Lawn. The parade, which proceeds along the 1.5 miles of Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the stand and the Front Lawn in view of the presidential party, features both military and civilian participants from all 50 states and the District of Columbia; this parade largely evolved from the post-inaugural procession to the White House, and occurred as far back as the second Jefferson inauguration, when shipmen from the Washington Navy Yard and musicians accompanied Jefferson on foot as he rode on horseback from the Capitol to the White House. This was expanded in 1837 with horse-drawn displays akin to parade floats being paraded with the president, and the 1847 inaugural ceremonies, including the procession, parade and festivities, were the first to be organized by an official organizing committee. However, the 1829 inauguration of Andrew Jackson saw serious overcrowding of the White House by well-wishers during the “Open House” held following the inauguration. The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland saw the post-inaugural Open House evolve into a presidential review of the troops from a grandstand in front of the White House. Since 1885, the presidential review has included both military and civilian contingencies. The 1953 Parade was the largest and most elaborate ever staged.[22] The presidential review has also made milestones, with the 1865 parade being the first to include African-Americans, the 1917 parade being the first to include female participants, and the 2009 parade being the first to include openly lesbian and gay participants.

Prayer service

A tradition of a national prayer service, usually the day after the inauguration, dates back to George Washington and since Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the prayer service has been held at the Washington National Cathedral.[23] This is not the same as the Inaugural Prayer, a tradition also began by Washington, when on June 1, 1789, Methodist Bishops Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke, Rev. John Dickins, the pastor of Old St. George’s (America’s oldest Methodist Church) and Major Thomas Morrell, one of President Washington’s former aide-de-camps called upon Washington in New York City.[24] This tradition resumed in 1985 with President Reagan and continues under the auspices of a Presidential Inaugural Prayer Committee based at Old St. Georges.


The security for the inaugural celebrations is a complex matter, involving the Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Protective Service (DHS-FPS), all five branches of the Armed Forces, the Capitol Police, the United States Park Police (USPP), and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC). Federal law enforcement agencies also sometimes request assistance from various other state and local law-enforcement agencies throughout the United States.

Presidential medals

Beginning with George Washington,there has been a traditional association with Inauguration festivities and the production of a presidential medal. With the District of Columbia attracting thousands of attendees for inauguration, presidential medals were an inexpensive souvenir for the tourists to remember the occasion. However, the once-simple trinket turned into an official presidential election memento. In 1901, the first Inauguration Committee on Medals and Badges was established as part of the official Inauguration Committee for the re-election of President McKinley. The Committee saw official medals as a way to raise funding for the festivities. Gold medals were to be produced as gifts for the president, vice president, and committee chair; silver medals were to be created and distributed among Inauguration Committee members; and bronze medals would be for sale for public consumption. McKinley’s medal was simple with his portrait on one side and writing on the other side.

Unlike his predecessor, when Theodore Roosevelt took his oath of office in 1905, he found the previous presidential medal unacceptable. As an art lover and admirer of the ancient Greek high-relief coins, Roosevelt wanted more than a simple medal—he wanted a work of art. To achieve this goal, the president hired Augustus Saint-Gaudens, a famous American sculptor, to design and create his inauguration medal. Saint-Gaudens’s obsession with perfection resulted in a forestalled release and the medals were distributed after the actual inauguration. However, President Roosevelt was very pleased with the result.

Saint-Gaudens’ practice of creating a portrait sculpture of the newly elected president is still used today in presidential medal creation. After the president sits for the sculptor, the resulting clay sketch is turned into a life mask and plaster model. Finishing touches are added and the epoxy cast that is created is used to produce the die cuts. The die cuts are then used to strike the president’s portrait on each medal. The most recent Presidential Inauguration Medal released was for President Obama in 2013.[26]

The Smithsonian Institution and The George Washington University hold the two most complete collections of presidential medals in the United States.

List of inaugural ceremonies

This is a list of the 57 inaugural ceremonies. Also noted (parenthetically) are the nine presidencies for which inaugurations were not celebrated. For a list of the 73 events when the presidential oath of office has been taken, see Oath of office of the President of the United States.

Date Event Location Oath Administered by[27] Document Sworn On Inaugural Addresses Notes[28]
April 30, 1789 First inauguration of George Washington Balcony of Federal Hall
New York, New York
Robert Livingston
Chancellor of New York
Washington Bible opened at random to Genesis 49:13 due to haste.[29] George Washington’s First Inaugural Address First President of the United States following the ratification of the Constitution.
March 4, 1793 Second inauguration of George Washington Senate Chamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
William Cushing
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Unknown[30] George Washington’s Second Inaugural Address Shortest inaugural address (135 words).
March 4, 1797 Inauguration of John Adams House Chamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Oliver Ellsworth Unknown[30] John Adams’ Inaugural Address First oath administered by the Chief Justice.
March 4, 1801 First inauguration of Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address First time Marine Band played (done in every inauguration since);
First time address printed on the morning of the inauguration (the National Intelligencer);
First inauguration not attended by outgoing president;
First to walk to and from swearing-in ceremony (instead of carriage).
March 4, 1805 Second inauguration of Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] Thomas Jefferson’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1809 First inauguration of James Madison House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] James Madison’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1813 Second inauguration of James Madison House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] James Madison’s Second Inaugural Address First Inaugural Ball (Long’s Hotel, tickets $4).
March 4, 1817 First inauguration of James Monroe In front of Old Brick Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] James Monroe’s First Inaugural Address First oath and inauguration held outdoors.
March 5, 1821 Second inauguration of James Monroe House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] James Monroe’s Second Inaugural Address First inauguration to fall on a Sunday – switched to Monday.
March 4, 1825 Inauguration of John Quincy Adams House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall A book of US law[31] John Quincy Adams’s Inaugural Address First president to wear long trousers instead of knee breeches.
March 4, 1829 First inauguration of Andrew Jackson East Portico, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address Second inauguration not attended by outgoing president.
March 4, 1833 Second inauguration of Andrew Jackson House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[30] Andrew Jackson’s Second Inaugural Address Last oath administered by Marshall (nine total, from Adams to Jackson);
First time two Inaugural balls were held (Carusi’s and Central Masonic Hall).
March 4, 1837 Inauguration of Martin Van Buren East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Bible open to Proverbs 3:17[30][32] Martin Van Buren’s Inaugural Address First president not born a British subject;
First time President & President-elect rode to the Capitol together for inauguration.
March 4, 1841 Inauguration of William Henry Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[30] William Henry Harrison’s Inaugural Address first president to arrive in Washington, D.C. by train;
First official inaugural planning committee;
Longest Inaugural address (8,445 words)
April 6, 1841 Inauguration of John Tyler
(Extraordinary inauguration)
William Cranch First of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President.
March 4, 1845 Inauguration of James K. Polk East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown James K. Polk’s Inaugural Address First Inauguration covered by telegraph;
First inauguration known to be illustrated in a newspaper (Illustrated London News).
March 5, 1849 Inauguration of Zachary Taylor East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown Zachary Taylor’s Inaugural Address Second case of rescheduling from Sunday to Monday;
Three inaugural balls held.
July 10, 1850 Inauguration of Millard Fillmore
(Extraordinary inauguration)
William Cranch Second of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President
March 4, 1853 Inauguration of Franklin Pierce East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Law book[30][33] Franklin Pierce’s Inaugural Address Oath affirmed (not sworn);
First speech recited entirely from memory;
Inaugural ball cancelled;
Vice President ill and sworn in while in Cuba.
March 4, 1857 Inauguration of James Buchanan East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[30] James Buchanan’s Inaugural Address First inauguration known to have been photographed.
March 4, 1861 First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Lincoln Bible opened at random[30] Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address Procession surrounded by heavily armed cavalry and infantry (war imminent).
March 4, 1865 Second inauguration of Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Bible open to Matthew 7:1, Matthew 18:7, Revelation 16:7[34] Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Blacks participated in parade for the first time.
April 15, 1865 Inauguration of Andrew Johnson
(Extraordinary inauguration)
Salmon P. Chase Third of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President.
March 4, 1869 First inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Unknown[30] Ulysses S. Grant’s First Inaugural Address Third inauguration not attended by outgoing president (Johnson remained at White House signing last-minute legislation).
March 4, 1873 Second inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Bible open to Isaiah 11:1-3[35] Ulysses S. Grant’s Second Inaugural Address Coldest March inauguration (16 °F at noon).
March 5, 1877 Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Bible open to Psalms 118:11-13[35] Rutherford B. Hayes’s Inaugural Address (Inauguration moved to Monday)
March 4, 1881 Inauguration of James A. Garfield East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Bible open to Proverbs 21:1[35][36] James A. Garfield’s Inaugural Address First president to review the inaugural parade from a stand built in front of the White House.
September 20, 1881 Inauguration of Chester A. Arthur
(Extraordinary inauguration)
John R. Brady Fourth of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President.
March 4, 1885 First inauguration of Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Bible opened at random by Chief Justice to Psalms 112:4-10[37] Grover Cleveland’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1889 Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Psalms 121:1-6[35] Benjamin Harrison’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1893 Second inauguration of Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Psalms 91:12-16 Grover Cleveland’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1897 First inauguration of William McKinley In front of Original Senate Wing
U.S. Capitol
Melville W. Fuller Bible open to 2 Chronicles 1:10[38] William McKinley’s First Inaugural Address First inauguration recorded by a motion picture camera;
First President with glass-enclosed reviewing stand for the parade.
March 4, 1901 Second inauguration of William McKinley East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Proverbs 16[35] William McKinley’s Second Inaugural Address First time House joined with Senate in inauguration ceremony planning.
September 14, 1901 First inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt
(Extraordinary inauguration)
Buffalo, New York at the Ainsley Wilcox Mansion on Delaware Avenue John R. Hazel Fifth of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President.
March 4, 1905 Second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to James 1:22-23[35] Theodore Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address First inauguration with telephone lines installed at the Capitol.
March 4, 1909 Inauguration of William Howard Taft Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to 1 Kings 3:9-11[35] William Howard Taft’s Inaugural Address First Lady accompanied for first time on ride from the Capitol to the White House following inauguration;
Blizzard required major effort to clear for parade.
March 4, 1913 First inauguration of Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Bible open to Psalm 119[35] Woodrow Wilsons First Inaugural Address Inaugural ball suspended for the first time since 1853 (upon Wilson’s request).
March 5, 1917 Second inauguration of Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Bible open to Psalm 46[39] Woodrow Wilson’s Second Inaugural Address First President to take the oath of office on Sunday;
First Lady accompanied for first time both to and from the Capitol;
First time women participated in the parade.
March 4, 1921 Inauguration of Warren G. Harding East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Washington Bible open to Micah 6:8[35] Warren Harding’s Inaugural Address Fourth (and most recent) inauguration not attended by outgoing president;
First time a president rode to and from event in an automobile.
August 3, 1923 First inauguration of Calvin Coolidge
(Extraordinary inauguration)
John Calvin Coolidge, Sr. Sixth of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President;
Sworn in by his father (a state notary public).
March 4, 1925 Second inauguration of Calvin Coolidge East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft Bible open to John 1[30] Calvin Coolidge’s Inaugural Address First inaugural ceremony broadcast nationally by radio;
First oath administered by a former president (as Chief Justice).
March 4, 1929 Inauguration of Herbert Hoover East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft Bible open to Proverbs 29:18[35] Herbert Hoover’s Inaugural Address First inaugural ceremony recorded by talking newsreel.
March 4, 1933 First inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to1 Corinthians 13:13[40] Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address First morning worship service (St. John’s Church).
January 20, 1937 Second inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Second Inaugural Address First held on January 20 (per 20th Amendment).
January 20, 1941 Third inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Third Inaugural Address First and (per 22nd Amendment) only case of a 3rd term inauguration.
January 20, 1945 Fourth inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt South Portico, White House Harlan F. Stone Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Fourth Inaugural Address Oldest oath Bible (1686) and the only one written in a modern foreign language (Dutch);
This bible was used by FDR for all four of his oaths;
No parade or formal celebration (wartime restrictions);
First and (per 22nd Amendment) only case of a 4th term inauguration.
April 12, 1945 First inauguration of Harry S. Truman
(Extraordinary inauguration)
Harlan F. Stone Seventh of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President.
January 20, 1949 Second inauguration of Harry S. Truman East Portico, U.S. Capitol
*First inauguration to be televised[41]
Frederick M. Vinson Bible open to Exodus 20:3-17and Matthew 5:3-11[42] Harry S. Truman’s Inaugural Address First televised inaugural ceremony.
January 20, 1953 First inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol Frederick M. Vinson Washington Bible open to Psalm 127:1 and a West Point Bible open to II Chronicles 7:14[43] Dwight Eisenhower’s First Inaugural Address Broke precedent by reciting his own prayer after taking the oath, rather than kissing the Bible.
January 21, 1957 Second inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren West Point Bible open to Psalm 33:12[44][45] Dwight Eisenhower’s Second Inaugural Address Inauguration held on Monday after Sunday oath.
January 20, 1961 Inauguration of John F. Kennedy East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[46][47] John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address First poet participation (Robert Frost);
First and only Catholic president;
First color televised inaugural ceremony.
November 22, 1963) First inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson
(Extraordinary inauguration)
Air Force One Sarah T. Hughes Missal that belonged to President Kennedy[16][17] Last of eight Vice Presidents to assume Presidency upon the death of the President;
First and only presidential oath taken on an airplane;
First and only woman to administer oath (U.S. District Judge).
January 20, 1965 Second inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[30][48] Lyndon Johnson’s Inaugural Address First use of a bullet-proof limousine.
January 20, 1969 First inauguration of Richard Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Bible open to Isaiah 2:4[40] Richard Nixon’s First Inaugural Address Oath taken on two Bibles (family heirlooms);
Three-faith prayer service.
January 20, 1973 Second inauguration of Richard Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Bible open to Isaiah 2:4[49] Richard Nixon’s Second Inaugural Address
August 9, 1974 Inauguration of Gerald Ford
(Extraordinary inauguration)
East Room, White House Warren E. Burger Only Vice President to assume Presidency upon the resignation of the President;
First and only unelected vice president to succeed to presidency.
January 20, 1977 Inauguration of Jimmy Carter East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Bible open to Micah 6:8[50][51] Jimmy Carter’s Inaugural Address First president to walk from the Capitol to the White House in the parade following the swearing-in ceremony;
First president to have been sworn in using his nickname.[52]
January 20, 1981 First inauguration of Ronald Reagan West Front, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Family Bible open to 2 Chronicles 7:14[30] Ronald Reagan’s First Inaugural Address Warmest inauguration on record (55 °F at noon).
January 21, 1985 Second inauguration of Ronald Reagan Rotunda, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Family Bible open to 2 Chronicles 7:14[30] Ronald Reagan’s Second Inaugural Address Coldest inauguration on record (7 °F at noon);
Inauguration held on Monday after Sunday oath.
January 20, 1989 Inauguration of George H. W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Washington Bible opened at random in the center and a family Bible on top opened to Matthew 5[30] George H. W. Bush’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1993 First inauguration of Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Bible open to Galatians 6:8[30] Bill Clinton’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1997 Second inauguration of Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Bible open to Isaiah 58:12[53] Bill Clinton’s Second Inaugural Address First inauguration made available live on the internet.
January 20, 2001 First inauguration of George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Closed family Bible[30][54] George W. Bush’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 2005 Second inauguration of George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Open family bible; same one used in 1989 and 2001 open to Isaiah 40:31[30] George W. Bush’s Second Inaugural Address First live webcam of inaugural platform construction;
First inauguration with secure inaugural credentials;
First anti-counterfeiting security designed into the tickets;
Largest inaugural platform to date.
January 20, 2009 First inauguration of Barack Obama[55] West Front, U.S. Capitol John G. Roberts Closed Lincoln Bible[56] Barack Obama’s First Inaugural Address First black president;
Largest attendance of any event in the history of Washington, DC;
Highest viewership ever of the swearing-in ceremonies on the Internet;
First woman to emcee the ceremony (Sen. Dianne Feinstein);
First inaugural webcast to include captioning.
January 21, 2013 Second inauguration of Barack Obama [57] West Front, U.S. Capitol John G. Roberts Lincoln Bible and a Bible owned by Martin Luther King, Jr.[58] Barack Obama’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 2017 Inauguration of Donald Trump West Front, U.S. Capitol John G. Roberts TBA TBA
Date Event Location Administered by[27] Document Sworn On[30] Inaugural Addresses (Texts from Wikisource) Notes[28]


Donald John Trump (/ˈdɒnəld ɒn trʌmp/; born June 14, 1946) is an American businessman and politician who is President-elect of the United States as well as chairman and president of The Trump Organization, the principal holding company for his real estate ventures and other business interests. He has stated the intention to vacate the latter positions prior to his assumption of the presidency. During his career, Trump has built office towers, hotels, casinos, golf courses, and other branded facilities worldwide.

Trump was born and raised in New York City and received a bachelor’s degree in economics from the Wharton Schoolof the University of Pennsylvania in 1968. In 1971 he was given control of his father Fred Trump‘s real estate and construction firm and later renamed it The Trump Organization, rising to public prominence shortly thereafter. Trump has appeared at the Miss USA pageants, which he owned from 1996 to 2015, and has made cameo appearances in films and television series. He sought the Reform Party presidential nomination in 2000, but withdrew before voting began. He hosted and co-produced The Apprentice, a reality television series on NBC, from 2004 to 2015. As of 2016, he was listed by Forbes as the 324th wealthiest person in the world, and 156th in the United States, with a net worth of $3.7 billion in October 2016.[3]

In June 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for president as a Republican and quickly emerged as the front-runner for his party’s nomination. In May 2016, his remaining Republican rivals suspended their campaigns, and in July he was formally nominated for president at the 2016 Republican National Convention. Trump’s campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention. Many of his statements in interviews, on Twitter, and at campaign rallies have been controversial or false. Several rallies during the primaries were accompanied by protests or riots. On October 7, a 2005 audio recording surfaced in which Trump bragged about forcibly kissing and groping women or being able to do so; multiple women accused him of similar conduct shortly thereafter. He apologized for the 2005 comments and denied the allegations, describing them as part of a wider smear campaign.

Trump’s platform included renegotiation of U.S.–China trade deals, opposition to particular trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, stronger enforcement of immigration laws together with building a wall along the U.S.–Mexico border, reform of veterans‘ care, repeal and replacement of the Affordable Care Act, and tax cuts. Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump called for a temporary ban on Muslim immigration, later stating that the ban would focus instead on countries with a proven history of terrorism, until the screening for potential terrorists is improved.

He was elected President on November 8, 2016, defeating Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton, and will take office January 20, 2017. At 70 years old, he will be the oldest person to assume the presidency.


Donald Trump August 19, 2015 (cropped).jpg
President-elect of the United States
Taking office
January 20, 2017
Vice President Mike Pence (elect)
Succeeding Barack Obama
Personal details
Born Donald John Trump
June 14, 1946 (age 70)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Republican (1987–1999, 2009–2011, 2012–present)
Other political
Democratic (before 1987, 2001–2009)
Reform (1999–2001)
Independent (2011–2012)[1][2]
Alma mater Fordham University
University of Pennsylvania (BS)


LYNN — Lynn City Council President Daniel Cahill said Dec. 8 is the scheduled date for a hearing to discuss a charter school proposed for the old Item building located at 38 Exchange St.

The school, tentatively named the Central Square Charter School, has been in the planning stages since May of 2012. Lynn resident Frank DeVito is spearheading the planning.

“There are two levels why I’m doing this,” DeVito said. “The first level is I have huge concerns over what is going on in public education. There is a huge divide in what it can offer poor and minority students. Wealthier cities and towns have more options to bring the kids the kind of programs that will prepare them for a career and college.”

When Essex Media Group purchased the Item in 2014, the deal did not include the building at 38 Exchange St. The building was subsequently sold at auction on July 15 and the transaction was completed in late September.

Winchester-based US1 Ventures was the buyer listed at auction and company President Christine Diarbakerly on Thursday said the charter school proposal is one of several options for the Item building’s reuse.

“We have a wide variety of options. We still do not know what direction we are going with the building,” Diarbakerly said.

The State Department of Education’s website on Wednesday listed a Nov. 23 Lynn City Hall hearing on DeVito’s proposal, but Cahill said local officials’ preference is to schedule a hearing on a Tuesday in December when City Hall is open after 4 p.m.

Initially, the proposed school will serve grades 5-6, with a total student enrollment of 160 students. Officials plan to expand the school each year by a grade, and by the seventh year it will reach full enrollment serving grades 5-12, with 640 total students.

DeVito said the Item building is part of the school’s proposed larger mission of educating students in the city’s center and making them aware of the neighborhoods around Central Square.

“The whole premise of the school is that it is engaging kids through social entrepreneurship,” DeVito said. “Kids will look at community issues and problems and learn math and science through solving these problems.”

The school has sent a final application to the Department of Education, and its founding team will be meeting with the DOE in January. A final decision on the school will be made by the Department in February.

DeVito says he hopes after approval from the DOE that the school will open in 2017.

LYNN — A 27-year-old Lynn man was shot Wednesday night on Pinkham Place, Lynn Police Lt. Rick Donnelly said.

Lynn Police responded to Salem Hospital at 11:22 p.m. Wednesday on a report of a shooting victim. Officers met with a 27-year-old Asian male from Lynn who reported he had been shot on Pinkham Place earlier that evening at about 11 p.m., Donnelly said.

“The victim had a non-life threatening gunshot wound to the left palm of his hand,” Donnelly said. The bullet appeared to have entered his palm and exited through the back of his hand.”

The victim could only tell police officers that he was approached by two male suspects and was shot by one of them. He was not able to provide any other description, Donnelly said.

“Lynn Police officers and detectives responded to Pinkham Place and processed the scene,” Donnelly said. “One .40 caliber shell casing was found on Pinkham Place and placed into evidence.”

LYNN− Lynn officials plan to discuss a proposed charter school that would be housed in the old Daily Item building located at 38 Exchange St at a future hearing.

Lynn City Council President Dan Cahill said the City is looking for a tentative date of Dec. 8 to hold the hearing.

The school, tentatively named the Central Square Charter School, has been in the planning stages since May of 2012. Lynn resident Frank DeVito is spearheading the planning.

“There are two levels why I’m doing this,” DeVito said. “The first level is I have huge concerns over what is going on in public education. There is a huge divide in what it can offer poor and minority students. Wealthier cities and towns have more options to bring the kids the kind of programs that will prepare them for a career and college.”

The State Department of Education’s website on Wednesday, listed a Nov. 23 Lynn City Hall hearing on DeVito’s proposal, but Cahill said, local officials’ preference is to schedule a hearing on a Tuesday in December when City Hall is open after 4 p.m.

Initially, the school will serve grades 5-6, with a total student enrollment of 160 students. Officials plan to expand the school each year by a grade, and by the seventh year it will reach full enrollment serving grades 5-12, with 640 total students.

DeVito said the Item building is part of the school’s proposed larger mission of educating students in the city’s center and making them aware of the neighborhoods around Central Square.

“The whole premise of the school is that it is engaging kids through social entrepreneurship,” DeVito said. “Kids will look at community issues and problems and learn math and science through solving these problems.”

When the Daily Item was purchased in 2014 by Essex media Group, the deal did not include the building at 38 Exchange St. The building was subsequently sold at auction on July 15 and the transaction was completed this fall.

The school has sent a final application to the Department of Education, and its founding team will be meeting with the DOE in January. A final decision on the school will be made by the Department in February.

DeVito says he hopes after approval from the DOE, that the school will open in 2017.